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AA20-209A: Potential Legacy Risk from Malware Targeting QNAP NAS Devices

US-CERT Security Alerts - Mon, 07/27/2020 - 04:20
Original release date: July 27, 2020 | Last revised: August 6, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p><em>This is a joint alert from the United States Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC).</em></p> <p>CISA and NCSC are investigating a strain of malware known as QSnatch, which attackers used in late 2019 to target Network Attached Storage (NAS) devices manufactured by the firm QNAP. &nbsp;</p> <p>All QNAP NAS devices are potentially vulnerable to QSnatch malware if not updated with the latest security fixes. The malware, documented in open-source reports, has infected thousands of devices worldwide with a particularly high number of infections in North America and Europe. Further, once a device has been infected, attackers can prevent administrators from successfully running firmware updates.</p> <p>This alert summarizes the findings of CISA and NCSC analysis and provides mitigation advice.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/files/NCSC%20CISA%20Alert%20-QNAP%20NAS%20Devices.pdf">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report from NCSC.</p> <p>For a downloadable copy of IOCs, see <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-209A.stix.xml">STIX file</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h3>Campaigns &nbsp;</h3> <p>CISA and NCSC have identified two campaigns of activity for QSnatch malware. The first campaign likely began in early 2014 and continued until mid-2017, while the second started in late 2018 and was still active in late 2019. The two campaigns are distinguished by the initial payload used as well as some differences in capabilities. This alert focuses on the second campaign as it is the most recent threat. &nbsp;</p> <p>It is important to note that infrastructure used by the malicious cyber actors in both campaigns is not currently active, but the threat remains to unpatched devices. &nbsp;</p> <p>Although the identities and objectives of the malicious cyber actors using QSnatch are currently unknown, the malware is relatively sophisticated, and the cyber actors demonstrate an awareness of operational security.</p> <h3>Global distribution of infections &nbsp;</h3> <p>Analysis shows a significant number of infected devices. In mid-June 2020, there were approximately 62,000 infected devices worldwide; of these, approximately 7,600 were in the United States and 3,900 were in the United Kingdom. Figure 1 below shows the location of these devices in broad geographic terms.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="353" src="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/aa20-209a_figure-1-locations_of_qnap_nas_devices_infected_by_qsnatch.png" width="400" /></p> <p class="text-align-center"><em>Figure 1: Locations of&nbsp;QNAP NAS devices infected by QSnatch</em></p> <h3>Delivery and exploitation</h3> <p>The infection vector has not been identified, but QSnatch appears to be injected into the device firmware during the infection stage, with the malicious code subsequently run within the device, compromising it. The attacker then uses a domain generation algorithm (DGA)—to establish a command and control (C2) channel that periodically generates multiple domain names for use in C2 communications—using the following HTTP GET request:</p> <p><code>HTTP GET https://[generated-address]/qnap_firmware.xml?=t[timestamp]</code><a href="https://www.kyberturvallisuuskeskus.fi/en/news/qsnatch-malware-designed-qnap-nas-devices">[1]</a></p> <h3>Malware functionalities &nbsp;</h3> <p>Analysis shows that QSnatch malware contains multiple functionalities, such as: &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li><strong>CGI password logger </strong>&nbsp; <ul> <li>This installs a fake version of the device admin login page, logging successful authentications and passing them to the legitimate login page.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong>Credential scraper</strong></li> <li><strong>SSH backdoor &nbsp;</strong> <ul> <li>This allows the cyber actor to execute arbitrary code on a device.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong>Exfiltration</strong> <ul> <li>When run, QSnatch steals a predetermined list of files, which includes system configurations and log files. These are encrypted with the actor’s public key and sent to their infrastructure over HTTPS.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong>Webshell functionality for remote access</strong></li> </ul> <h3>Persistence</h3> <p>The malware appears to gain persistence by preventing updates from installing on the infected QNAP device. The attacker modifies the system host’s file, redirecting core domain names used by the NAS to local out-of-date versions so updates can never be installed.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <h3>Samples</h3> <p>The following tables provide hashes of related QSnatch samples found in open-source malware repositories. File types fall into two buckets: (1) shell scripts (see table 1) and (2) shell script compiler (SHC)-compiled executable and linking format (ELF) shell scripts (see table 2). One notable point is that some samples intentionally patch the infected QNAP for Samba remote code execution vulnerability CVE-2017-7494. &nbsp;</p> <p><em>Table 1: QSnatch samples – shell scripts</em></p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <th><strong>SH Samples (SHA256)</strong></th> </tr> <tr> <td>09ab3031796bea1b8b79fcfd2b86dac8f38b1f95f0fce6bd2590361f6dcd6764</td> </tr> <tr> <td>3c38e7bb004b000bd90ad94446437096f46140292a138bfc9f7e44dc136bac8d</td> </tr> <tr> <td>8fd16e639f99cdaa7a2b730fc9af34a203c41fb353eaa250a536a09caf78253b</td> </tr> <tr> <td>473c5df2617cee5a1f73880c2d66ad9668eeb2e6c0c86a2e9e33757976391d1a</td> </tr> <tr> <td>55b5671876f463f2f75db423b188a1d478a466c5e68e6f9d4f340396f6558b9f</td> </tr> <tr> <td>9526ccdeb9bf7cfd9b34d290bdb49ab6a6acefc17bff0e85d9ebb46cca8b9dc2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4b514278a3ad03f5efb9488f41585458c7d42d0028e48f6e45c944047f3a15e9</td> </tr> <tr> <td>fa3c2f8e3309ee67e7684abc6602eea0d1d18d5d799a266209ce594947269346</td> </tr> <tr> <td>18a4f2e7847a2c4e3c9a949cc610044bde319184ef1f4d23a8053e5087ab641b</td> </tr> <tr> <td>9791c5f567838f1705bd46e880e38e21e9f3400c353c2bf55a9fa9f130f3f077</td> </tr> <tr> <td>a569332b52d484f40b910f2f0763b13c085c7d93dcdc7fea0aeb3a3e3366ba5d</td> </tr> <tr> <td>a9364f3faffa71acb51b7035738cbd5e7438721b9d2be120e46b5fd3b23c6c18</td> </tr> <tr> <td>62426146b8fcaeaf6abb24d42543c6374b5f51e06c32206ccb9042350b832ea8</td> </tr> <tr> <td>5cb5dce0a1e03fc4d3ffc831e4a356bce80e928423b374fc80ee997e7c62d3f8</td> </tr> <tr> <td>5130282cdb4e371b5b9257e6c992fb7c11243b2511a6d4185eafc0faa0e0a3a6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>15892206207fdef1a60af17684ea18bcaa5434a1c7bdca55f460bb69abec0bdc</td> </tr> <tr> <td>3cb052a7da6cda9609c32b5bafa11b76c2bb0f74b61277fecf464d3c0baeac0e</td> </tr> <tr> <td>13f3ea4783a6c8d5ec0b0d342dcdd0de668694b9c1b533ce640ae4571fdbf63c</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Table 2: QSnatch samples – SHC-compiled ELF shell scripts</em></p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <th><strong>SH Samples (SHA256)</strong></th> </tr> <tr> <td>18a4f2e7847a2c4e3c9a949cc610044bde319184ef1f4d23a8053e5087ab641b</td> </tr> <tr> <td>3615f0019e9a64a78ccb57faa99380db0b36146ec62df768361bca2d9a5c27f2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>845759bb54b992a6abcbca4af9662e94794b8d7c87063387b05034ce779f7d52</td> </tr> <tr> <td>6e0f793025537edf285c5749b3fcd83a689db0f1c697abe70561399938380f89</td> </tr> <tr> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>As stated above, once a device has been infected, attackers have been known to make it impossible for administrators to successfully run the needed firmware updates. This makes it extremely important for organizations to ensure their devices have not been previously compromised. <strong>Organizations that are still running a vulnerable version should take the following steps to ensure the device is not left vulnerable:</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Scan the device with the latest version of Malware Remover,</strong> available in <a href="https://www.qnap.com/en-us/app_releasenotes/?type_choose=Utilities">QNAP App Center</a>, to detect and remove QSnatch or other malware. <ul> <li>If the installation via App Center fails, manually install Malware Remover following <a href="https://urldefense.us/v3/__https:/www.qnap.com/en/how-to/knowledge-base/article/how-to-install-qnap-applications-qpkg-files-manually__;!!BClRuOV5cvtbuNI!XPCHTsigleobUvh1bSzLCLG8cPaxt-RD2ixM8js9QWU3e6ZcTEq1kesRf6q8Ypt4gOLyg-Yr3U8$">this QNAP tutorial</a>, or contact <a href="https://urldefense.us/v3/__https:/service.qnap.com/en__;!!BClRuOV5cvtbuNI!XPCHTsigleobUvh1bSzLCLG8cPaxt-RD2ixM8js9QWU3e6ZcTEq1kesRf6q8Ypt4gOLyhKUvzyM$">QNAP Technical Support</a> for further assistance.</li> </ul> </li> <li><strong>Run a full factory reset on the device.</strong></li> <li><strong>Update the firmware to the latest version.</strong></li> </ul> <p>The usual checks to ensure that the latest updates are installed still apply. <strong>To prevent reinfection, this recommendation also applies to devices previously infected with QSnatch but from which the malware has been removed.</strong></p> <p>To prevent QSnatch malware infections, CISA and NCSC strongly recommend that organizations take the recommended measures in QNAP’s November 2019 advisory.<a href="https://www.qnap.com/en/security-advisory/nas-201911-01">[2]</a></p> <p>CISA and NCSC also recommend organizations consider the following mitigations: &nbsp;</p> <ul> <li>Verify that you purchased QNAP devices from reputable sources. &nbsp; <ul> <li>If sources are in question then, in accordance with the instructions above, <strong>scan the device with the latest version of the Malware Remover and run a full factory reset on the device prior to completing the firmware upgrade.</strong> For additional supply chain recommendations, see CISA’s tip on <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/tips/ST18-001">Securing Network Infrastructure Devices</a>.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Block external connections when the device is intended to be used strictly for internal storage.</li> </ul> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.kyberturvallisuuskeskus.fi/en/news/qsnatch-malware-designed-qnap-nas-devices">[1] QSnatch - Malware designed for QNAP NAS devices</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.qnap.com/en/security-advisory/nas-201911-01">[2] QNAP: Security Advisory for Malware QSnatch</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>July 27, 2020: Initial Version</li> <li>August 4, 2020: Updated Mitigations section</li> <li>August 6, 2020: Updated Mitigations section</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-206A: Threat Actor Exploitation of F5 BIG-IP CVE-2020-5902

US-CERT Security Alerts - Fri, 07/24/2020 - 02:59
Original release date: July 24, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p>The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) is issuing this alert in response to recently disclosed exploits that target F5 BIG-IP devices that are vulnerable to CVE-2020-5902. F5 Networks, Inc. (F5) released a patch for CVE-2020-5902 on June 30, 2020.<a href="https://support.f5.com/csp/article/K52145254">[1]</a> Unpatched F5 BIG-IP devices are an attractive target for malicious actors. Affected organizations that have not applied the patch to fix this critical remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability risk an attacker exploiting CVE-2020-5902 to take control of their system. <strong>Note:</strong> F5’s security advisory for CVE-2020-5902 states that there is a high probability that any remaining unpatched devices are likely already compromised.</p> <p>CISA expects to see continued attacks exploiting unpatched F5 BIG-IP devices and strongly urges users and administrators to upgrade their software to the fixed versions. CISA also advises that administrators deploy the signature included in this Alert to help them determine whether their systems have been compromised.</p> <p>This Alert also provides additional&nbsp;detection measures and mitigations for victim organizations to help recover from attacks resulting from CVE-2020-5902. CISA encourages administrators to remain aware of the ramifications of exploitation and to use the recommendations in this alert to help secure their organization’s systems against attack.</p> <h3>Background</h3> <p>CISA has conducted incident response engagements at U.S. Government and commercial entities where malicious cyber threat actors have exploited CVE-2020-5902—an RCE vulnerability in the BIG-IP Traffic Management User Interface (TMUI)—to take control of victim systems. On June 30, F5 disclosed CVE-2020-5902, stating that it allows attackers to, “execute arbitrary system commands, create or delete files, disable services, and/or execute arbitrary Java code.”</p> <p>On July 4, open-source reporting indicated a proof-of-concept code was available and threat actors were exploiting the vulnerability by attempting to steal credentials. On July 5, security researchers posted exploits that would allow threat actors to exfiltrate data or execute commands on vulnerable devices. The risk posed by the vulnerability is critical.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><p>CISA has observed scanning and reconnaissance, as well as confirmed compromises, within a few days of F5’s patch release for this vulnerability. As early as July 6, 2020, CISA has seen broad scanning activity for the presence of this vulnerability across federal departments and agencies—this activity is currently occurring as of the publication of this Alert.</p> <p>CISA has been working with several entities across multiple sectors to investigate potential compromises relating to this vulnerability. CISA has confirmed two compromises and is continuing to investigate.&nbsp; CISA will update this Alert with any additional actionable information.</p> <h3>Detection Methods</h3> <p>CISA recommends administrators see the F5 Security Advisory K52145254 for indicators of compromise and F5’s CVE-2020-5902 IoC Detection Tool.<a href="https://support.f5.com/csp/article/K52145254">[2]</a> CISA also recommends organizations complete the following actions in conducting their hunt for this exploit:</p> <ul> <li>Quarantine or take offline potentially affected systems</li> <li>Collect and review artifacts such as running processes/services, unusual authentications, and recent network connections</li> <li>Deploy the following CISA-created Snort signature to detect malicious activity:<br /> <br /> <code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"BIG-IP:HTTP URI GET contains '/tmui/login.jsp/..|3b|/tmui/':CVE-2020-5902"; sid:1; rev:1; flow:established,to_server; content:"/tmui/login.jsp/..|3b|/tmui/"; http_uri; fast_pattern:only; content:"GET"; nocase; http_method; priority:2; reference:url,github.com/yassineaboukir/CVE-2020-5902; reference:cve,2020-5902; metadata:service http;)</code></li> </ul> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>CISA strongly urges organizations that have not yet done so to upgrade their BIG-IP software to the corresponding patches for CVE-2020-5902. If organizations detect evidence of CVE-2020-5902 exploitation after patching and applying the detection measures in this alert, CISA recommends taking immediate action to reconstitute affected systems.</p> <p>Should an organization’s IT security personnel discover system compromise, CISA recommends they:</p> <ul> <li>Reimage compromised hosts</li> <li>Provision new account credentials</li> <li>Limit access to the management interface to the fullest extent possible</li> <li>Implement network segmentation <ul> <li><strong>Note: </strong>network segmentation is a very effective security mechanism to help prevent an intruder from propagating exploits or laterally moving within an internal network. Segregation separates network segments based on role and functionality. A securely segregated network can limit the spread of malicious occurrences, reducing the impact from intruders that gain a foothold somewhere inside the network.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>Recipients of this report are encouraged to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. For any questions related to this report, please contact CISA at</p> <ul> <li>Phone: (888) 282-0870</li> <li>Email: <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto: CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov">CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov</a></li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://support.f5.com/csp/article/K52145254">[1] F5 Security Advisory K52145254 </a></li> <li><a href="https://support.f5.com/csp/article/K52145254">[2] F5 Security Advisory K52145254 </a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/publication/guidance-f5-big-ip-vulnerability-fact-sheet">CISA Factsheet: Guidance for F5 BIG-IP TMUI Vulnerability (CVE-2020-5902)</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>July 24, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-205A: NSA and CISA Recommend Immediate Actions to Reduce Exposure Across Operational Technologies and Control Systems

US-CERT Security Alerts - Thu, 07/23/2020 - 06:29
Original release date: July 23, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p class="tip-intro" style="font-size: 15px;"><em><strong>Note: </strong> This Activity Alert uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&amp;CK®) framework. See the <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/matrices/enterprise/">ATT&amp;CK for Enterprise</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Main_Page">ATT&amp;CK for Industrial Control Systems</a> frameworks for all referenced threat actor techniques and mitigations.</em></p> <p>Over recent months, cyber actors have demonstrated their continued willingness to conduct malicious cyber activity against critical infrastructure (CI) by exploiting internet-accessible operational technology (OT) assets.[<a href="https://www.cyberscoop.com/israel-cyberattacks-water-iran-yigal-unna">1</a>] Due to the increase in adversary capabilities and activity, the criticality to U.S. national security and way of life, and the vulnerability of OT systems, civilian infrastructure makes attractive targets for foreign powers attempting to do harm to U.S. interests or retaliate for perceived U.S. aggression. OT assets are critical to the Department of Defense (DoD) mission and underpin essential National Security Systems (NSS) and services, as well as the Defense Industrial Base (DIB) and other critical infrastructure. At this time of heightened tensions, it is critical that asset owners and operators of critical infrastructure take the following immediate steps to ensure resilience and safety of U.S. systems should a time of crisis emerge in the near term. The National Security Agency (NSA)&nbsp;along with the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) recommend that all DoD, NSS, DIB, and U.S. critical infrastructure facilities take immediate actions to secure their OT assets.</p> <p>Internet-accessible OT assets are becoming more prevalent across the 16 U.S. CI sectors as companies increase remote operations and monitoring, accommodate a decentralized workforce, and expand outsourcing of key skill areas such as instrumentation and control, OT asset management/maintenance, and in some cases, process operations and maintenance. Legacy OT assets that were not designed to defend against malicious cyber activities, combined with readily available information that identifies OT assets connected via the internet (e.g., Shodan,[<a href="https://shodan.io">2</a>] Kamerka [<a href="https://github.com/woj-ciech/kamerka">3</a>]), are creating a “perfect storm” of 1) easy access to unsecured assets, 2) use of common, open-source information about devices, and 3) an extensive list of exploits deployable via common exploit frameworks [<a href="https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2020/03/monitoring-ics-cyber-operation-tools-and-software-exploit-modules.html">4</a>] (e.g., Metasploit,[<a href="https://metasploit.com">5</a>] Core Impact,[<a href="https://coresecurity.com/products/core-impact">6</a>] and Immunity Canvas [<a href="https://immunityinc.com/products/canvas">7</a>]). Observed cyber threat activities can be mapped to the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&amp;CK) for Industrial Controls Systems (ICS) framework.[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Main_Page">8</a>] It is important to note that while the behavior may not be technically advanced, it is still a serious threat because the potential impact to critical assets is so high.</p> <p><a href="https://media.defense.gov/2020/Jul/23/2002462846/-1/-1/1/OT_ADVISORY-DUAL-OFFICIAL-20200722.PDF">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h2>Recently Observed Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures</h2> <ul> <li><em>Spearphishing</em> [<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1192/">T1192</a>] to obtain initial access to the organization’s information technology (IT) network before pivoting to the OT network.</li> <li>Deployment of commodity ransomware to <em>Encrypt Data for Impact </em>[<a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1486/">T1486</a>] on both networks.</li> <li><em>Connecting to Internet Accessible PLCs </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T883">T883</a>] requiring no authentication for initial access.</li> <li><em>Utilizing Commonly Used Ports </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T885">T885</a>] and <em>Standard Application Layer Protocols </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T869">T869</a>], to communicate with controllers and download modified control logic.</li> <li>Use of vendor engineering software and <em>Program Downloads </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T843">T843</a>].</li> <li><em>Modifying Control Logic </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T833">T833</a>] and <em>Parameters</em> [<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T836">T836</a>] on PLCs.</li> </ul> <h2>Impacts</h2> <ul> <li><em>Impacting a Loss of Availability</em> [<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T826">T826</a>] on the OT network.</li> <li><em>Partial Loss of View </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T829">T829</a>] for human operators.</li> <li><em>Resulting in Loss of Productivity and Revenue </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T828">T828</a>].</li> <li><em>Adversary Manipulation of Control </em>[<a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Technique/T831">T831</a>] and disruption to physical processes.<br /> &nbsp;</li> </ul> <h3>Mitigations</h3><h2>Have a Resilience Plan for OT</h2> <p>Since the Ukraine cyberattack of 2015 organizations must assume in their planning of not only a malfunctioning or inoperative control system, but a control system that is actively acting contrary to the safe and reliable operation of the process. Organizations need an OT resilience plan that allows them to:</p> <ul> <li>Immediately disconnect systems from the Internet that do not need internet connectivity for safe and reliable operations. Ensure that compensating controls are in place where connectivity cannot be removed.</li> <li>Plan for continued manual process operations should the ICS become unavailable or need to be deactivated due to hostile takeover.</li> <li>Remove additional functionality that could induce risk and attack surface area.</li> <li>Identify system and operational dependencies.</li> <li>Restore OT devices and services in a timely manner. Assign roles and responsibilities for OT network and device restoration.</li> <li>Backup “gold copy” resources, such as firmware, software, ladder logic, service contracts, product licenses, product keys, and configuration information. Verify that all “gold copy” resources are stored off-network and store at least one copy in a locked tamperproof environment (e.g., locked safe).</li> <li>Test and validate data backups and processes in the event of data loss due to malicious cyber activity.</li> </ul> <h2>Exercise your Incident Response Plan</h2> <p>In a state of heightened tensions and additional risk and exposure, it is critical to have a well-exercised incident response plan that is developed before an incident.</p> <ul> <li>Conduct a tabletop exercise, including executive personnel, to test your existing incident response plan.</li> <li>Be sure to include your public affairs and legal teams in your exercise in addition to your IT, OT, and executive management.</li> <li>Discuss key decisions points in the response plan and identify who has the authority to make key decisions under what circumstances.</li> <li>Ensure your plan takes into account a scenario inclusive of the TTPs above and where the control system is actively operating counter to safe and reliable operations.</li> <li>Partner with third parties for support. Review service contracts and government services for emergency incident response and recovery support.</li> </ul> <h2>Harden Your Network</h2> <ul> <li>Remote connectivity to OT networks and devices provides a known path that can be exploited by cyber actors. External exposure should be reduced as much as possible.</li> <li>Remove access from networks, such as non-U.S. IP addresses, if applicable, that do not have legitimate business reasons to communicate with the system.</li> <li>Use publicly available tools, such as Shodan, to discover internet-accessible OT devices. Take corrective actions to eliminate or mitigate internet-accessible connections immediately. Best practices include: <ul> <li>Fully patch all Internet-accessible systems.</li> <li>Segment networks to protect PLCs and workstations from direct exposure to the internet. Implement secure network architectures utilizing demilitarized zones (DMZs), firewalls, jump servers, and/or one-way communication diodes.</li> <li>Ensure all communications to remote devices use a virtual private network (VPN) with strong encryption further secured with multifactor authentication.</li> <li>Check and validate the legitimate business need for such access.</li> <li>Filter network traffic to only allow IP addresses that are known to need access, and use geo-blocking where appropriate.</li> <li>Connect remote PLCs and workstations to network intrusion detection systems where feasible.</li> <li>Capture and review access logs from these systems.</li> <li>Encrypt network traffic preferably using NIAP-validated VPN products and/or CNSSP- or NIST-approved algorithms when supported by OT system components to prevent sniffing and man-in-the-middle tactics. Available at: <a href="https://niap-ccevs.org">https://niap-ccevs.org</a>.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Use the validated inventory to investigate which OT devices are internet-accessible.</li> <li>Use the validated inventory to identify OT devices that connect to business, telecommunications, or wireless networks.</li> <li>Secure all required and approved remote access and user accounts. <ul> <li>Prohibit the use of default passwords on all devices, including controllers and OT equipment.</li> <li>Remove, disable, or rename any default system accounts wherever possible, especially those with elevated privileges or remote access.</li> <li>Enforce a strong password security policy (e.g., length, complexity).</li> <li>Require users to change passwords periodically, when possible.</li> <li>Enforce or plan to implement two-factor authentication for all remote connections.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Harden or disable unnecessary features and services (e.g., discovery services, remote management services, remote desktop services, simulation, training, etc.).</li> </ul> <h2>Create an Accurate “As-operated” OT Network Map Immediately</h2> <p>An accurate and detailed OT infrastructure map provides the foundation for sustainable cyber-risk reduction.</p> <ul> <li>Document and validate an accurate “as-operated” OT network map. <ul> <li>Use vendor-provided tools and procedures to identify OT assets.</li> <li>Use publicly available tools, such as Wireshark,[<a href="https://www.wireshark.org">9</a>] NetworkMiner,[<a href="https://netresec.com/?page=Networkminer">10</a>] GRASSMARLIN,[<a href="https://github.com/nsacyber/GRASSMARLIN">11</a>] and/or other passive network mapping tools.</li> <li>Physically walk down to check and verify the OT infrastructure map.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Create an asset inventory. <ul> <li>Include OT devices assigned an IP address.</li> <li>Include software and firmware versions.</li> <li>Include process logic and OT programs.</li> <li>Include removable media.</li> <li>Include standby and spare equipment.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Identify all communication protocols used across the OT networks. <ul> <li>Use vendor-provided tools and procedures to identify OT communications.</li> <li>Use publicly available tools, such as Wireshark,[<a href="https://www.wireshark.org">9</a>] NetworkMiner,[<a href="https://netresec.com/?page=Networkminer">10</a>] GRASSMARLIN,[<a href="https://github.com/nsacyber/GRASSMARLIN">11</a>] and/or other passive network mapping tools.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Investigate all unauthorized OT communications.</li> <li>Catalog all external connections to and from the OT networks. <ul> <li>Include all business, vendor, and other remote access connections.</li> <li>Review service contracts to identify all remote connections used for third-party services.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2>Understand and Evaluate Cyber-risk on “As-operated” OT Assets</h2> <p>Informed risk awareness can be developed using a variety of readily available resources, many of which include specific guidance and mitigations.</p> <ul> <li>Use the validated asset inventory to investigate and determine specific risk(s) associated with existing OT devices and OT system software. <ul> <li>Vendor-specific cybersecurity and technical advisories.</li> <li>CISA Advisories [<a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ics/advisories">12</a>].</li> <li>Department of Homeland Security – Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Cyber Security Evaluation Tool [<a href="https://us-cert.gov/ncas/current-activity/2019/11/04/cset-version-92-now-available">13</a>].</li> <li>MITRE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) for both Information Technology and OT devices and system software [<a href="https://cve.mitre.org">14</a>]. Available at <a href="https://cve.mitre.org">https://cve.mitre.org</a>.</li> <li>National Institute of Standards and Technology – National Vulnerability Database [<a href="https://nvd.nist.gov">15</a>]. Available at <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov">https://nvd.nist.gov</a>.</li> </ul> </li> <li>Implement mitigations for each relevant known vulnerability, whenever possible (e.g., apply software patches, enable recommended security controls, etc.).</li> <li>Audit and identify all OT network services (e.g., system discovery, alerts, reports, timings, synchronization, command, and control) that are being used. <ul> <li>Use vendor provided programming and/or diagnostic tools and procedures.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2>Implement a Continuous and Vigilant System Monitoring Program</h2> <p>A vigilant monitoring program enables system anomaly detection, including many malicious cyber tactics like “living off the land” techniques within OT systems.</p> <ul> <li>Log and review all authorized external access connections for misuse or unusual activity.</li> <li>Monitor for unauthorized controller change attempts. <ul> <li>Implement integrity checks of controller process logic against a known good baseline.</li> <li>Where possible, ensure process controllers are prevented from remaining in remote program mode while in operation.</li> <li>Lock or limit set points in control processes to reduce the consequences of unauthorized controller access.</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3>Contact Information</h3><h2>CISA</h2> <p>CISA encourages recipients of this report to contribute any additional information that they may have related to this threat. For any questions related to this report, please contact CISA at</p> <ul> <li>1-888-282-0870 (From outside the United States: +1-703-235-8832)</li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov">CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov</a></li> </ul> <p><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov">CISA</a> encourages you to report any suspicious activity, including cybersecurity incidents, possible malicious code, software vulnerabilities, and phishing-related scams. Reporting forms can be found at <a href="http://www.us-cert.gov/">http://www.us-cert.gov/</a>.</p> <p>CISA strives to make this report a valuable tool for our partners and welcomes feedback on how this publication could be improved. You can help by answering a few short questions about this report at the following URL: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/forms/feedback">https://www.us-cert.gov/forms/feedback</a>.</p> <h2>NSA Cybersecurity</h2> <p>Client Requirements / General Cybersecurity Inquiries: Cybersecurity Requirements Center, 410-854-4200, <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:Cybersecurity_Requests@nsa.gov">Cybersecurity_Requests@nsa.gov</a><br /> Media inquiries / Press Desk: 443-634-0721, <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:MediaRelations@nsa.gov">MediaRelations@nsa.gov</a></p> <h2>&nbsp;</h2> <h2>Registered Trademarks</h2> <ul> <li>Shodan is a registered trademark of Shodan Limited Liability Company.</li> <li>Metasploit is a registered trademark of Rapid7 Limited Liability Company.</li> <li>Core Impact is a registered trademark of Help/Systems, Limited Liability Company.</li> <li>Canvas is a registered trademark of Immunity Products, Limited Liability Company.</li> <li>MITRE is a registered trademark of The MITRE Corporation.</li> <li>ATT&amp;CK is a registered trademark of The MITRE Corporation.</li> <li>Wireshark is a registered trademark of Wireshark Foundation, Inc.</li> </ul> <h2>Disclaimer of Endorsement</h2> <p>The information and opinions contained in this document are provided "as is" and without any warranties or guarantees. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government, and this guidance shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes.</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.cyberscoop.com/israel-cyberattacks-water-iran-yigal-unna">[1] Lyngaas, S. Israeli official confirms attempted cyberattack on water systems. Cyberscoop, 28 May, 2020.</a></li> <li><a href="https://shodan.io">[2] Shodan</a></li> <li><a href="https://github.com/woj-ciech/kamerka">[3] Kamerka</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2020/03/monitoring-ics-cyber-operation-tools-and-software-exploit-modules.html">[4] Fireeye (2020).Monitoring ICS Cyber Operation Tools and Software Exploit Modules to Anticipate Future Threats.</a></li> <li><a href="https://metasploit.com">[5] Metasploit</a></li> <li><a href="https://coresecurity.com/products/core-impact">[6] Core Impact</a></li> <li><a href="https://immunityinc.com/products/canvas">[7] Immunity CANVAS</a></li> <li><a href="https://collaborate.mitre.org/attackics/index.php/Main_Page">[8] MITRE ATT&CK for Industrial Control Systems</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.wireshark.org">[9] Wireshark</a></li> <li><a href="https://netresec.com/?page=Networkminer">[10] NetworkMiner</a></li> <li><a href="https://github.com/nsacyber/GRASSMARLIN">[11] GRASSMARLIN</a></li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ics/advisories">[12] CISA Advisories</a></li> <li><a href="https://us-cert.gov/ncas/current-activity/2019/11/04/cset-version-92-now-available">[13] CISA Cyber Security Evaluation Tool</a></li> <li><a href="https://cve.mitre.org">[14] MITRE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures</a></li> <li><a href="https://nvd.nist.gov">[15] National Institute of Standards and Technology National Vulnerability Database</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>July 23, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-198A: Malicious Cyber Actor Use of Network Tunneling and Spoofing to Obfuscate Geolocation

US-CERT Security Alerts - Thu, 07/16/2020 - 04:09
Original release date: July 16, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p class="tip-intro" style="font-size: 15px;"><em>This Activity Alert uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&amp;CK™) and Pre-ATT&amp;CK frameworks. See the MITRE <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/matrices/enterprise/">ATT&amp;CK for Enterprise</a> and <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/pre/">Pre-ATT&amp;CK</a> frameworks for referenced threat actor techniques.</em></p> <p>Attributing malicious cyber activity that uses network tunneling and spoofing techniques to a specific threat actor is difficult. Attribution requires analysis of multiple variables, including location. Because threat actors can use these techniques to obfuscate their location, it is not possible to identify the true physical location of malicious activity based solely on the geolocation of Internet Protocol (IP). This Alert discusses how threat actors use these obfuscation techniques to mislead incident responders.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h2>Geolocation</h2> <p>The geolocation of an IP address is often obtained with publicly available information (<a href="https://whois.icann.org/en/about-whois">WHOIS</a> registration) or proprietary information. The level of geographic precision varies widely across sources; some provide country and locality details, while others provide neighborhood-level detail. Additionally, the accuracy of this information varies by source.</p> <p>However, even if the geolocation of an IP address is accurate, the threat actor may not be physically located near it; instead, they may be hiding their true location through the use of spoofing and network tunnels.</p> <h2>Spoofing</h2> <p>A threat actor can spoof packets with an arbitrary source IP address, which in turn geolocates to a specific country (see figure 1). The actor's physical location may be elsewhere. The actor then initiates their malicious activity. Network defenders see packets originating from a source IP address that did not generate the traffic. This technique is most common with connectionless activities, such as distributed <em>Endpoint Denial of Service</em> <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1499/">[T1499]</a> and <em>Network Denial of Service</em> <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1498/">[T1498]</a>— including DNS amplification—attacks.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="231" src="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-198A_spoofing.png" width="375" /></p> <p class="text-align-center"><var>Figure 1: IP spoofing</var></p> <h2>Encapsulating Network Tunnels</h2> <p>A network tunnel encapsulates network traffic between two points (see figure 2). Often network tunnels are used for legitimate purposes, such as secure remote administration or creating virtual private networks (VPNs). However, a malicious cyber actor can use this technique to mask their true source IP address and, therefore, their physical location. The threat actor accomplishes masking by using virtual private servers (VPSs), which can be purchased through commercial providers. The threat actor will initiate a remote network tunnel from their computer to the VPS and then use the VPS to initiate malicious activity. Network defenders see the IP address, as well as geolocation information of the VPS. Attempts to identify the cyber actor’s physical location by using the geolocation of the VPS will be inaccurate. Network tunneling is common with malicious <em>Connection Proxy </em><a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1090/">[T1090]</a> activities.</p> <p class="text-align-center"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" height="235" src="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-198A_networktunnel.png" width="375" /></p> <p class="text-align-center"><var>Figure 2: Network tunnel encapsulation</var></p> <p>The ease with which IP addresses can be spoofed and the possibility that activity could be tunneled through a network to intentionally mask the true source prevents any attempt to identify the physical location of the activity based solely on the geolocation of the IP address.</p> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>In addition to being knowledgeable about threat actor obfuscation techniques, CISA encourages incident responders to review the following best practices to strengthen the security posture of their systems. Any configuration changes should be reviewed by system owners and administrators prior to implementation to avoid unwanted impacts.</p> <ul> <li>Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST18-271">Protecting Against Malicious Code</a>.</li> <li>Ensure systems have the latest security updates. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-006">Understanding Patches and Software Updates</a>.</li> <li>Disable file and printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.</li> <li>Restrict users' permissions to install and run unwanted software applications. Do not add users to the local administrators’ group unless required.</li> <li>Enforce a strong password policy. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-002">Choosing and Protecting Passwords</a>.</li> <li>Exercise caution when opening email attachments, even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-010">Using Caution with Email Attachments</a>.</li> <li>Enable a personal firewall on agency workstations that is configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.</li> <li>Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.</li> <li>Scan for and remove suspicious email attachments; ensure the scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).</li> <li>Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to sites with unfavorable content.</li> <li>Exercise caution when using removable media (e.g., USB thumb drives, external drives, CDs).</li> <li>Scan all software downloaded from the internet prior to executing.</li> <li>Maintain situational awareness of the latest threats and implement appropriate Access Control Lists (ACLs).</li> </ul> <h2>Additional Information</h2> <p><a href="https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDHSUSCERT/subscriber/new">Sign up</a> to receive CISA’s alerts on security topics and threats.</p> <p>Sign up for CISA’s free vulnerability scanning and testing services to help organizations secure internet-facing systems from weak configuration and known vulnerabilities. Email <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov">vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov</a> to sign up. See <a href="https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-resource-hub">https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-resource-hub</a>&nbsp; for more information about vulnerability scanning and other CISA cybersecurity assessment services.</p> <h2>Acknowledgements</h2> <p>Palo Alto Networks and IBM contributed to this Alert.</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://blog.cloudflare.com/the-root-cause-of-large-ddos-ip-spoofing/">Cloudflare Blog: The real cause of large DDoS - IP Spoofing</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/12_4/interface/configuration/guide/inb_tun.html">Cisco Configuration Guide: Implementing Tunnels</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>July 16, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-195A: Critical Vulnerability in SAP NetWeaver AS Java

US-CERT Security Alerts - Mon, 07/13/2020 - 15:07
Original release date: July 13, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p>On July 13, 2020 EST, SAP released a <a href="https://wiki.scn.sap.com/wiki/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=552599675">security update</a> to address a critical vulnerability, <a href="https://wiki.scn.sap.com/wiki/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=552599675">CVE-2020-6287</a>, affecting the SAP NetWeaver Application Server (AS) Java component LM Configuration Wizard. An unauthenticated attacker can exploit this vulnerability through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to take control of trusted SAP applications.</p> <p>Due to the criticality of this vulnerability, the attack surface this vulnerability represents, and the importance of SAP’s business applications, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) strongly recommends organizations immediately apply patches. CISA recommends organizations prioritize patching internet-facing systems, and then internal systems.</p> <p>Organizations that are unable to immediately patch should mitigate the vulnerability by disabling the LM Configuration Wizard service (see SAP Security Note <a href="https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/2939665">#2939665</a>). Should these options be unavailable or if the actions will take more than 24 hours to complete, CISA strongly recommends closely monitoring your SAP NetWeaver AS for anomalous activity.</p> <p>CISA is unaware of any active exploitation of these vulnerabilities at the time of this report. However, because patches have been publicly released, the underlying vulnerabilities could be reverse-engineered to create exploits that target unpatched systems.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h4>Affected Systems</h4> <p>This vulnerability is present by default in SAP applications running on top of SAP NetWeaver AS Java 7.3 and any newer versions (up to SAP NetWeaver 7.5). Potentially vulnerable SAP business solutions include any SAP Java-based solutions such as (but not limited to):</p> <ul> <li>SAP Enterprise Resource Planning,</li> <li>SAP Product Lifecycle Management,</li> <li>SAP Customer Relationship Management,</li> <li>SAP Supply Chain Management,</li> <li>SAP Supplier Relationship Management,</li> <li>SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse,</li> <li>SAP Business Intelligence,</li> <li>SAP NetWeaver Mobile Infrastructure,</li> <li>SAP Enterprise Portal,</li> <li>SAP Process Orchestration/Process Integration),</li> <li>SAP Solution Manager,</li> <li>SAP NetWeaver Development Infrastructure,</li> <li>SAP Central Process Scheduling,</li> <li>SAP NetWeaver Composition Environment, and</li> <li>SAP Landscape Manager.</li> </ul> <h4>Attack Surface</h4> <p>The vulnerability was identified in a component that is part of the SAP NetWeaver AS Java. This technology stack is part of the SAP Solution Manager, which is a support and system management suite.</p> <p>The SAP NetWeaver AS for Java technology supports the SAP Portal component, which may therefore be affected by this vulnerability and is typically exposed to the internet. Passive analysis of internet-facing applications indicates that a number of such applications are connected to the internet and could be affected by this vulnerability.</p> <h4><br /> Description</h4> <p>On July 13, 2020 EST, SAP released the patch for a critical vulnerability, <a href="https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2020-6287">CVE-2020-6287</a>, affecting its NetWeaver AS for Java component. This vulnerability can lead to compromise of vulnerable SAP installations, including the modification or extraction of highly sensitive information, as well as the disruption of critical business processes. A remote, unauthenticated attacker can exploit this vulnerability through an HTTP interface, which is typically exposed to end users and, in many cases, exposed to the internet.</p> <p>The vulnerability is introduced due to the lack of authentication in a web component of the SAP NetWeaver AS for Java allowing for several high-privileged activities on the SAP system.</p> <h5><br /> Impact</h5> <p>If successfully exploited, a remote, unauthenticated attacker can obtain unrestricted access to SAP systems through the creation of high-privileged users and the execution of arbitrary operating system commands with the privileges of the SAP service user account (<code>&lt;sid&gt;adm</code>), which has unrestricted access to the SAP database and is able to perform application maintenance activities, such as shutting down federated SAP applications. The confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and processes hosted by the SAP application are at risk by this vulnerability.<br /> &nbsp;</p> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>CISA strongly recommends organizations review SAP Security Note <a href="https://wiki.scn.sap.com/wiki/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=552599675">#2934135</a> for more information and apply critical patches as soon as possible. CISA recommends prioritizing patching over application of individual mitigations. When patching, external facing systems should be urgently addressed, followed by internal systems.</p> <p>Patched versions of the affected components are available at the <a href="https://launchpad.support.sap.com/">SAP One Support Launchpad</a>.</p> <h4>Additional Recommendations</h4> <p>CISA encourages users and administrators of SAP products to:</p> <ul> <li>Scan SAP systems for all known vulnerabilities, such as missing security patches, dangerous system configurations, and vulnerabilities in SAP custom code.</li> <li>Apply missing security patches immediately and institutionalize security patching as part of a periodic process</li> <li>Ensure secure configuration of your SAP landscape</li> <li>Identify and analyze the security settings of SAP interfaces between systems and applications to understand risks posed by these trust relationships.</li> <li>Analyze systems for malicious or excessive user authorizations.</li> <li>Monitor systems for indicators of compromise resulting from the exploitation of vulnerabilities.</li> <li>Monitor systems for suspicious user behavior, including both privileged and non-privileged users.</li> <li>Apply threat intelligence on new vulnerabilities to improve the security posture against advanced targeted attacks.</li> <li>Define comprehensive security baselines for systems and continuously monitor for compliance violations and remediate detected deviations.</li> </ul> <p>These recommendations apply to SAP systems in public, private, and hybrid cloud environments.</p> <p>See the Onapsis report on the&nbsp;<a href="https://www.onapsis.com/recon-sap-cyber-security-vulnerability">“RECON” SAP Vulnerability</a> for more information.</p> <h4>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</h4> <p>SAP and Onapsis contributed to this Alert.</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.onapsis.com/recon-sap-cyber-security-vulnerability">[1] Onapsis Threat Report </a></li> <li><a href="https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2020-6287%20">[2] CVE-2020-6287</a></li> <li><a href="https://launchpad.support.sap.com/#/notes/2934135">[3] SAP Security Note</a></li> <li><a href="http://www.sap.com/security">[4] SAP Trust Center</a></li> <li><a href="https://wiki.scn.sap.com/wiki/display/PSR/The+Official+SAP+Product+Security+Response+Space">[5] SAP Monthly Security Patch Day Blog</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>July, 13 2020: Initial Version </li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-183A: Defending Against Malicious Cyber Activity Originating from Tor

US-CERT Security Alerts - Wed, 07/01/2020 - 17:00
Original release date: July 1, 2020 | Last revised: July 2, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p class="tip-intro" style="font-size: 15px;"><em>This advisory uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&amp;CK®) and Pre-ATT&amp;CK framework. See the <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/matrices/enterprise/">ATT&amp;CK for Enterprise</a> and <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/pre/">Pre-ATT&amp;CK</a> frameworks for referenced threat actor techniques.</em></p> <p>This advisory—written by the Cybersecurity Security and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) with contributions from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)—highlights risks associated with Tor, along with technical details and recommendations for mitigation. Cyber threat actors can use Tor software and network infrastructure for anonymity and obfuscation purposes to clandestinely conduct malicious cyber operations.[<a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-107a">1</a>],[<a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AR-17-20045_Enhanced_Analysis_of_GRIZZLY_STEPPE_Activity.pdf">2</a>],[<a href="https://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/more-than-400-.onion-addresses-including-dozens-of-dark-market-sites-targeted-as-part-of-global-enforcement-action-on-tor-network">3</a>]</p> <p>Tor (aka The Onion Router) is software that allows users to browse the web anonymously by encrypting and routing requests through multiple relay layers or nodes. This software is maintained by the <a href="https://www.torproject.org/">Tor Project</a>, a nonprofit organization that provides internet anonymity and anti-censorship tools. While Tor can be used to promote democracy and free, anonymous use of the internet, it also provides an avenue for malicious actors to conceal their activity because identity and point of origin cannot be determined for a Tor software user. Using the Onion Routing Protocol, Tor software obfuscates a user’s identity from anyone seeking to monitor online activity (e.g., nation states, surveillance organizations, information security tools). This is possible because the online activity of someone using Tor software appears to originate from the Internet Protocol (IP) address of a Tor exit node, as opposed to the IP address of the user’s computer.</p> <p>CISA and the FBI recommend that organizations assess their individual risk of compromise via Tor and take appropriate mitigations to block or closely monitor inbound and outbound traffic from known Tor nodes.</p> <p><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-183A_Defending_Against_Malicious_Cyber_Activity_Originating_from_Tor_S508C.pdf">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report.</p> <h3>Risk Evaluation</h3><p>Malicious cyber actors use Tor to mask their identity when engaging in malicious cyber activity impacting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of an organization’s information systems and data. Examples of this activity include performing reconnaissance, penetrating systems, exfiltrating and manipulating data, and taking services offline through denial-of-service attacks and delivery of ransomware payloads. Threat actors have relayed their command and control (C2) server communications—used to control systems infected with malware—through Tor, obscuring the identity (location and ownership) of those servers.</p> <p>The use of Tor in this context allows threat actors to remain anonymous, making it difficult for network defenders and authorities to perform system recovery and respond to cyberattacks. Organizations that do not take steps to block or monitor Tor traffic are at heightened risk of being targeted and exploited by threat actors hiding their identity and intentions using Tor.</p> <p>The risk of being the target of malicious activity routed through Tor is unique to each organization. An organization should determine its individual risk by assessing the likelihood that a threat actor will target its systems or data and the probability of the threat actor’s success given current mitigations and controls. This assessment should consider legitimate reasons that non-malicious users may prefer to, or need to, use Tor for accessing the network. Organizations should evaluate their mitigation decisions against threats to their organization from advanced persistent threats (APTs), moderately sophisticated attackers, and low-skilled individual hackers, all of whom have leveraged Tor to carry out reconnaissance and attacks in the past.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><p style="margin-bottom: 8px;">Tor obfuscates the source and destination of a web request. This allows users to conceal information about their activities on the web—such as their location and network usage—from the recipients of that traffic, as well as third parties who may conduct network surveillance or traffic analysis. Tor encrypts a user’s traffic and routes the traffic through at least three Tor nodes, or relays, so that the user’s starting IP address and request is masked from network and traffic observers during transit. Once the request reaches its intended destination, it exits Tor through a public Tor exit node. Anyone conducting monitoring or analysis will only see the traffic coming from the Tor exit node and will not be able to determine the original IP address of the request.</p> <p style="margin-bottom: 8px;">&nbsp;</p> <p align="center" style="margin-bottom: 8px;"><span style="page-break-after: avoid;"><font color="#000000"><font face="Times New Roman"><font size="3"><img alt="" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" 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style="width: 614px; height: 371px;" /></font></font></font></span></p> <p class="text-align-center" style="margin-top: 8px; margin-bottom: 13px;"><em>Figure 1: Malicious tactics and techniques aided by Tor, mapped to the <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/">MITRE ATT&amp;CK framework</a></em></p> <h2>Malicious Tactics and Techniques Aided by Tor</h2> <p>Threat actors use Tor to create a layer of anonymity to conceal malicious activity at different stages of network compromise. Their tactics and techniques—illustrated in figure 1 above—include:</p> <h3>Pre-ATT&amp;CK</h3> <ul> <li>Target Selection <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0014/">[TA0014]</a></li> <li>Technical Information Gathering <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0015/">[TA0015]</a> <ul> <li>Conduct Active Scanning <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1254/">[T1254]</a></li> <li>Conduct Passive Scanning <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1253/">[T1253]</a></li> <li>Determine domain and IP address space <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1250/">[T1250]</a></li> <li>Identify security defensive capabilities <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1263">[T1263]</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>Technical Weakness Identification <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0018/">[TA0018]</a></li> </ul> <h3>ATT&amp;CK</h3> <ul> <li>Initial Access <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0001/">[TA0001]</a> <ul> <li>Exploit Public-Facing Applications <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1190/">[T1190]</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>Command and Control <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0011/">[TA0011]</a> <ul> <li>Commonly Used Port <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1043">[T1043]</a></li> <li>Connection Proxy <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1090/">[T1090]</a></li> <li>Custom Command and Control Protocol <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1094/">[T1094]</a></li> <li>Custom Cryptographic Protocol <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1024/">[T1024]</a></li> <li>Multi-hop Proxy <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1188/">[T1188]</a></li> <li>Multilayer Encryption <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1079/">[T1079]</a></li> <li>Standard Application Layer Protocol <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1071/">[T1071]</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>Exfiltration <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0010/">[TA0010]</a></li> <li>Impact <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/tactics/TA0040/">[TA0040]</a> <ul> <li>Data Encrypted for Impact <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1486">[T1486]</a></li> <li>Endpoint Denial of Service <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1499/">[T1499]</a></li> <li>Network Denial of Service <a href="https://attack.mitre.org/techniques/T1498/">[T1498]</a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h3>Key Indicators of Malicious Activity via Tor</h3> <p>While Tor obfuscates a user from being identified through standard security tools, network defenders can leverage various network, endpoint, and security appliance logs to detect the use of Tor, including potentially malicious activity involving Tor, through indicator- or behavior-based analysis.</p> <p>Using an indicator-based approach, network defenders can leverage security information and event management (SIEM) tools and other log analysis platforms to flag suspicious activities involving the IP addresses of Tor exit nodes. The list of Tor exit node IP addresses is actively maintained by the Tor Project’s Exit List Service, which offers both real-time query and bulk download interfaces (see <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/changes-tor-exit-list-service">https://blog.torproject.org/changes-tor-exit-list-service</a>). Organizations preferring bulk download may consider automated data ingest solutions, given the highly dynamic nature of the Tor exit list, which is updated hourly. Network defenders should closely inspect evidence of substantial transactions with Tor exit nodes—revealed in netflow, packet capture (PCAP), and web server logs—to infer the context of the activity and to discern any malicious behavior that could represent reconnaissance, exploitation, C2, or data exfiltration.</p> <p>Using a behavior-based approach, network defenders can uncover suspicious Tor activity by searching for the operational patterns of Tor client software and protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports commonly affiliated with Tor include 9001, 9030, 9040, 9050, 9051, and 9150. Highly structured Domain Name Service (DNS) queries for domain names ending with the suffix torproject.org is another behavior exhibited by hosts running Tor software. In addition, DNS queries for domains ending in .onion is a behavior exhibited by misconfigured Tor clients, which may be attempting to beacon to malicious Tor hidden services.</p> <p>Organizations should research and enable the pre-existing Tor detection and mitigation capabilities within their existing endpoint and network security solutions, as these often employ effective detection logic. Solutions such as web application firewalls, router firewalls, and host/network intrusion detection systems may already provide some level of Tor detection capability.</p> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>Organizations can implement mitigations of varying complexity and restrictiveness to reduce the risk posed by threat actors who use Tor to carry out malicious activities. However, mitigation actions can also impact the access of legitimate users who leverage Tor to protect their privacy when visiting an organization’s internet-facing assets. Organizations should evaluate their probable risk, available resources, and impact to legitimate, non-malicious, Tor users before applying mitigation actions.&nbsp;</p> <ul> <li><strong>Most restrictive approach: Block all web traffic to and from public Tor entry and exit nodes. </strong>Organizations that wish to take a conservative or less resource-intensive approach to reduce the risk posed by threat actors’ use of Tor should implement tools that restrict all traffic—malicious and legitimate—to and from Tor entry and exit nodes. Of note, blocking known Tor nodes does not completely eliminate the threat of malicious actors using Tor for anonymity, as additional Tor network access points, or bridges, are not all listed publicly. See table 1 for the most restrictive mitigation practices.</li> </ul> <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 1000px;"> <caption> <p class="text-align-center"><em>Table 1: Most restrictive mitigation practices</em></p> </caption> <tbody> <tr> <td><strong>Type</strong></td> <td><strong>Level of Effort</strong></td> <td><strong>Technical Implementation</strong></td> <td> <p><strong>Impact&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Baseline Activity</strong></td> <td>Low/Medium</td> <td> <p>Require organization to maintain up-to-date lists of known Tor exit and entry node IP addresses.</p> <p>Public lists are available on the internet, but frequency of updates and accuracy varies depending on the source. The Tor Project maintains an authoritative <a href="https://blog.torproject.org/changes-tor-exit-list-service">list</a>.&nbsp;</p> </td> <td>Up-to-date awareness of known Tor nodes to enable blocking</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>External Policies</strong></td> <td>Medium</td> <td> <p>Set external policies to block incoming traffic from known Tor exit nodes to prevent malicious reconnaissance and exploit attempts.</p> <p>Network security tools (e.g., next-generation firewalls, proxies) may have configuration settings to apply these policies.</p> </td> <td>Block inbound network traffic, both malicious and legitimate, from reaching the organization’s domain from known Tor exit nodes</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Internal Policies</strong></td> <td>Medium</td> <td> <p>Set internal policies to block outgoing traffic to Tor entry nodes to prevent data exfiltration and C2 traffic.</p> <p>Network security tools (e.g., next-generation firewalls, proxies) may have configuration settings to apply these policies.</p> </td> <td>Block outbound network traffic, both malicious and legitimate, from leaving the organization’s domain into known Tor entry nodes</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ul> <li><strong>Less restrictive approach: Tailor monitoring, analysis, and blocking of web traffic to and from public Tor entry and exit nodes. </strong>There are instances in which legitimate users may leverage Tor for internet browsing and other non-malicious purposes. For example, deployed military or other overseas voters may use Tor as part of the voting process to escape monitoring by foreign governments. Such users may use Tor when visiting elections-related websites, to check voter registration status, or to mark and then cast absentee ballots via email or web portal. Similarly, some users may use Tor to avoid tracking by advertisers when browsing the internet. Organizations that do not wish to block legitimate traffic to/from Tor entry/exit nodes should consider adopting practices that allow for network monitoring and traffic analysis for traffic from those nodes, and then consider appropriate blocking. This approach can be resource intensive but will allow greater flexibility and adaptation of defensive.</li> </ul> <table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 1000px;"> <caption> <p class="text-align-center"><em>Table 2: Less restrictive mitigation practices</em></p> </caption> <tbody> <tr> <td><strong>Type</strong></td> <td><strong>Level of Effort</strong></td> <td><strong>Technical Implementation</strong></td> <td><strong>Impact</strong></td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Known Tor Nodes</strong></td> <td>Low/Medium</td> <td> <p>Require the organization to maintain up-to-date lists of known Tor exit and entry node IP addresses.</p> <p>The Tor Project maintains an authoritative <a href="https://blog.torporject.org/changes-tor-exit-list-service">list</a>.&nbsp;</p> </td> <td>Up-to-date awareness of known Tor nodes to enable baselining/allow blocking</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>SIEM Correlation</strong></td> <td>Low/Medium</td> <td>Integrate network security and SIEM tools that correlate logs.</td> <td>Enhanced understanding of legitimate/expected Tor use for inbound/outbound traffic</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Baseline</strong></td> <td>Medium</td> <td> <p>Analyze traffic to determine normal patterns of behavior; legitimate vs. anomalous uses of Tor.</p> <p>Baseline existing Tor traffic to/from known entry/exit nodes over a period of months.</p> <p>Inspect traffic to understand legitimate traffic; level-set the organization’s risk tolerance for blocking or allowing Tor traffic to/from specific services.</p> </td> <td>Baseline understanding of legitimate vs. potentially anomalous Tor uses.</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Internal / External Policies</strong></td> <td>Medium/High</td> <td> <p>Institute behavioral signatures/rules to block unexpected/potentially malicious activity and allow legitimate activity.</p> <p>Examine activity between any ephemeral port and Tor IP—this could be malicious data exfiltration or C2 traffic (except where use of outbound Tor entry nodes is expected).</p> <p>Monitor for use of TCP/UDP ports 9001, 9030, 9040, 9050, 9051, 9150, and TCP ports 443* and 8443.</p> <p>Monitor and/or block inbound connections from Tor exit nodes to IP addresses and ports for which external connections are not expected (i.e., other than VPN gateways, mail ports, web ports).</p> <p>Associated ports are applicable for client -&gt; guard/relay traffic monitoring and analysis but not monitoring for exit node -&gt; a network destination.</p> <p>Monitor and examine any large dataflows between networks and Tor IP addresses, regardless of port, as this could be unauthorized data exfiltration.</p> <p>*Since port 443 is the most common port for secure web traffic, generically monitoring 443 may produce a high volume of false positives; network traffic tools can be used to assist in this analysis.</p> </td> <td>Legitimate traffic via Tor entry/exit nodes is permitted and unexpected/potentially malicious activity via Tor entry/exit nodes is blocked</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ul> <li><strong>Blended approach: Block all Tor traffic to some resources, allow and monitor for others.</strong> Given the various licit and illicit uses of Tor, a blended approach may be an appropriate risk mitigation strategy for some organizations (i.e., intentionally allowing traffic to/from Tor only for specific websites and services where legitimate use may be expected and blocking all Tor traffic to/from non-excepted processes/services). This may require continuous re-evaluation as an entity considers its own risk tolerance associated with different applications. The level of effort to implement this approach is high.</li> </ul> <h3>Considerations for Blocking Use of Tor</h3> <p>Sophisticated threat actors may leverage additional anonymization technologies—such as virtual private networks (VPNs)—and configurable features within Tor—such as Tor bridges and pluggable transports—to circumvent detection and blocking. Blocking the use of known Tor nodes may not effectively mitigate all hazards but may protect against less sophisticated actors. For example, blocking outbound traffic to known Tor entry nodes could have an appreciable impact in blocking less sophisticated malware from successfully beaconing out to hidden C2 machines obfuscated by Tor. Ultimately, each entity must consider its own internal thresholds and risk tolerance when determining a risk mitigation approach associated with Tor.</p> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>To report suspicious or criminal activity related to information found in this Joint Cybersecurity Advisory, contact your local FBI field office at <a href="http://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field">www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field</a>, or the FBI’s 24/7 Cyber Watch (CyWatch) at (855) 292-3937 or by e-mail at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto: CyWatch@fbi.gov">CyWatch@fbi.gov</a>. When available, please include the following information regarding the incident: date, time, and location of the incident; type of activity; number of people affected; type of equipment used for the activity; the name of the submitting company or organization; and a designated point of contact. To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto: CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov">CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov</a>.</p> <h2>Disclaimer</h2> <p><em>This document is marked TLP:WHITE. Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol, see <a href="http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp/">http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp/</a>.</em></p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-107a">[1] CISA Alert: Continued Threat Actor Exploitation Post Pulse Secure VPN Patching. April 2020. Cyber threat actors used Connection Proxies—such as Tor and VPS—to minimize the chance of detection when connecting to victim VPN appliances.</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AR-17-20045_Enhanced_Analysis_of_GRIZZLY_STEPPE_Activity.pdf">[2] CISA Analysis Report: Enhanced Analysis of GRIZZLY STEPPE Activity. February 2017. GRIZZLY STEPPE actors have infected pirated software in torrent services and leveraged TOR exit nodes to deliver to malware since at least 2014.</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/more-than-400-.onion-addresses-including-dozens-of-dark-market-sites-targeted-as-part-of-global-enforcement-action-on-tor-network">[3] FBI Press Release: More Than 400 .Onion Addresses, Including Dozens of ‘Dark Market’ Sites, Targeted as Part of Global Enforcement Action on Tor Network. November 2014. Advertised goods and services included: computer-hacking tools and services.</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>July 1, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-183A: Defending Against Malicious Cyber Activity Originating from Tor

US-CERT Security Alerts - Wed, 07/01/2020 - 17:00
Original release date: July 1, 2020 | Last revised: July 2, 2020
Summary

This advisory uses the MITRE Adversarial Tactics, Techniques, and Common Knowledge (ATT&CK®) and Pre-ATT&CK framework. See the ATT&CK for Enterprise and Pre-ATT&CK frameworks for referenced threat actor techniques.

This advisory—written by the Cybersecurity Security and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) with contributions from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)—highlights risks associated with Tor, along with technical details and recommendations for mitigation. Cyber threat actors can use Tor software and network infrastructure for anonymity and obfuscation purposes to clandestinely conduct malicious cyber operations.[1],[2],[3]

Tor (aka The Onion Router) is software that allows users to browse the web anonymously by encrypting and routing requests through multiple relay layers or nodes. This software is maintained by the Tor Project, a nonprofit organization that provides internet anonymity and anti-censorship tools. While Tor can be used to promote democracy and free, anonymous use of the internet, it also provides an avenue for malicious actors to conceal their activity because identity and point of origin cannot be determined for a Tor software user. Using the Onion Routing Protocol, Tor software obfuscates a user’s identity from anyone seeking to monitor online activity (e.g., nation states, surveillance organizations, information security tools). This is possible because the online activity of someone using Tor software appears to originate from the Internet Protocol (IP) address of a Tor exit node, as opposed to the IP address of the user’s computer.

CISA and the FBI recommend that organizations assess their individual risk of compromise via Tor and take appropriate mitigations to block or closely monitor inbound and outbound traffic from known Tor nodes.

Click here for a PDF version of this report.

Risk Evaluation

Malicious cyber actors use Tor to mask their identity when engaging in malicious cyber activity impacting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of an organization’s information systems and data. Examples of this activity include performing reconnaissance, penetrating systems, exfiltrating and manipulating data, and taking services offline through denial-of-service attacks and delivery of ransomware payloads. Threat actors have relayed their command and control (C2) server communications—used to control systems infected with malware—through Tor, obscuring the identity (location and ownership) of those servers.

The use of Tor in this context allows threat actors to remain anonymous, making it difficult for network defenders and authorities to perform system recovery and respond to cyberattacks. Organizations that do not take steps to block or monitor Tor traffic are at heightened risk of being targeted and exploited by threat actors hiding their identity and intentions using Tor.

The risk of being the target of malicious activity routed through Tor is unique to each organization. An organization should determine its individual risk by assessing the likelihood that a threat actor will target its systems or data and the probability of the threat actor’s success given current mitigations and controls. This assessment should consider legitimate reasons that non-malicious users may prefer to, or need to, use Tor for accessing the network. Organizations should evaluate their mitigation decisions against threats to their organization from advanced persistent threats (APTs), moderately sophisticated attackers, and low-skilled individual hackers, all of whom have leveraged Tor to carry out reconnaissance and attacks in the past.

Technical Details

Tor obfuscates the source and destination of a web request. This allows users to conceal information about their activities on the web—such as their location and network usage—from the recipients of that traffic, as well as third parties who may conduct network surveillance or traffic analysis. Tor encrypts a user’s traffic and routes the traffic through at least three Tor nodes, or relays, so that the user’s starting IP address and request is masked from network and traffic observers during transit. Once the request reaches its intended destination, it exits Tor through a public Tor exit node. Anyone conducting monitoring or analysis will only see the traffic coming from the Tor exit node and will not be able to determine the original IP address of the request.

 

Figure 1: Malicious tactics and techniques aided by Tor, mapped to the MITRE ATT&CK framework

Malicious Tactics and Techniques Aided by Tor

Threat actors use Tor to create a layer of anonymity to conceal malicious activity at different stages of network compromise. Their tactics and techniques—illustrated in figure 1 above—include:

Pre-ATT&CK
  • Target Selection [TA0014]
  • Technical Information Gathering [TA0015]
    • Conduct Active Scanning [T1254]
    • Conduct Passive Scanning [T1253]
    • Determine domain and IP address space [T1250]
    • Identify security defensive capabilities [T1263]
  • Technical Weakness Identification [TA0018]
ATT&CK Key Indicators of Malicious Activity via Tor

While Tor obfuscates a user from being identified through standard security tools, network defenders can leverage various network, endpoint, and security appliance logs to detect the use of Tor, including potentially malicious activity involving Tor, through indicator- or behavior-based analysis.

Using an indicator-based approach, network defenders can leverage security information and event management (SIEM) tools and other log analysis platforms to flag suspicious activities involving the IP addresses of Tor exit nodes. The list of Tor exit node IP addresses is actively maintained by the Tor Project’s Exit List Service, which offers both real-time query and bulk download interfaces (see https://blog.torproject.org/changes-tor-exit-list-service). Organizations preferring bulk download may consider automated data ingest solutions, given the highly dynamic nature of the Tor exit list, which is updated hourly. Network defenders should closely inspect evidence of substantial transactions with Tor exit nodes—revealed in netflow, packet capture (PCAP), and web server logs—to infer the context of the activity and to discern any malicious behavior that could represent reconnaissance, exploitation, C2, or data exfiltration.

Using a behavior-based approach, network defenders can uncover suspicious Tor activity by searching for the operational patterns of Tor client software and protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports commonly affiliated with Tor include 9001, 9030, 9040, 9050, 9051, and 9150. Highly structured Domain Name Service (DNS) queries for domain names ending with the suffix torproject.org is another behavior exhibited by hosts running Tor software. In addition, DNS queries for domains ending in .onion is a behavior exhibited by misconfigured Tor clients, which may be attempting to beacon to malicious Tor hidden services.

Organizations should research and enable the pre-existing Tor detection and mitigation capabilities within their existing endpoint and network security solutions, as these often employ effective detection logic. Solutions such as web application firewalls, router firewalls, and host/network intrusion detection systems may already provide some level of Tor detection capability.

Mitigations

Organizations can implement mitigations of varying complexity and restrictiveness to reduce the risk posed by threat actors who use Tor to carry out malicious activities. However, mitigation actions can also impact the access of legitimate users who leverage Tor to protect their privacy when visiting an organization’s internet-facing assets. Organizations should evaluate their probable risk, available resources, and impact to legitimate, non-malicious, Tor users before applying mitigation actions. 

  • Most restrictive approach: Block all web traffic to and from public Tor entry and exit nodes. Organizations that wish to take a conservative or less resource-intensive approach to reduce the risk posed by threat actors’ use of Tor should implement tools that restrict all traffic—malicious and legitimate—to and from Tor entry and exit nodes. Of note, blocking known Tor nodes does not completely eliminate the threat of malicious actors using Tor for anonymity, as additional Tor network access points, or bridges, are not all listed publicly. See table 1 for the most restrictive mitigation practices.

Table 1: Most restrictive mitigation practices

Type Level of Effort Technical Implementation

Impact 

Baseline Activity Low/Medium

Require organization to maintain up-to-date lists of known Tor exit and entry node IP addresses.

Public lists are available on the internet, but frequency of updates and accuracy varies depending on the source. The Tor Project maintains an authoritative list

Up-to-date awareness of known Tor nodes to enable blocking External Policies Medium

Set external policies to block incoming traffic from known Tor exit nodes to prevent malicious reconnaissance and exploit attempts.

Network security tools (e.g., next-generation firewalls, proxies) may have configuration settings to apply these policies.

Block inbound network traffic, both malicious and legitimate, from reaching the organization’s domain from known Tor exit nodes Internal Policies Medium

Set internal policies to block outgoing traffic to Tor entry nodes to prevent data exfiltration and C2 traffic.

Network security tools (e.g., next-generation firewalls, proxies) may have configuration settings to apply these policies.

Block outbound network traffic, both malicious and legitimate, from leaving the organization’s domain into known Tor entry nodes

 

  • Less restrictive approach: Tailor monitoring, analysis, and blocking of web traffic to and from public Tor entry and exit nodes. There are instances in which legitimate users may leverage Tor for internet browsing and other non-malicious purposes. For example, deployed military or other overseas voters may use Tor as part of the voting process to escape monitoring by foreign governments. Such users may use Tor when visiting elections-related websites, to check voter registration status, or to mark and then cast absentee ballots via email or web portal. Similarly, some users may use Tor to avoid tracking by advertisers when browsing the internet. Organizations that do not wish to block legitimate traffic to/from Tor entry/exit nodes should consider adopting practices that allow for network monitoring and traffic analysis for traffic from those nodes, and then consider appropriate blocking. This approach can be resource intensive but will allow greater flexibility and adaptation of defensive.

Table 2: Less restrictive mitigation practices

Type Level of Effort Technical Implementation Impact Known Tor Nodes Low/Medium

Require the organization to maintain up-to-date lists of known Tor exit and entry node IP addresses.

The Tor Project maintains an authoritative list

Up-to-date awareness of known Tor nodes to enable baselining/allow blocking SIEM Correlation Low/Medium Integrate network security and SIEM tools that correlate logs. Enhanced understanding of legitimate/expected Tor use for inbound/outbound traffic Baseline Medium

Analyze traffic to determine normal patterns of behavior; legitimate vs. anomalous uses of Tor.

Baseline existing Tor traffic to/from known entry/exit nodes over a period of months.

Inspect traffic to understand legitimate traffic; level-set the organization’s risk tolerance for blocking or allowing Tor traffic to/from specific services.

Baseline understanding of legitimate vs. potentially anomalous Tor uses. Internal / External Policies Medium/High

Institute behavioral signatures/rules to block unexpected/potentially malicious activity and allow legitimate activity.

Examine activity between any ephemeral port and Tor IP—this could be malicious data exfiltration or C2 traffic (except where use of outbound Tor entry nodes is expected).

Monitor for use of TCP/UDP ports 9001, 9030, 9040, 9050, 9051, 9150, and TCP ports 443* and 8443.

Monitor and/or block inbound connections from Tor exit nodes to IP addresses and ports for which external connections are not expected (i.e., other than VPN gateways, mail ports, web ports).

Associated ports are applicable for client -> guard/relay traffic monitoring and analysis but not monitoring for exit node -> a network destination.

Monitor and examine any large dataflows between networks and Tor IP addresses, regardless of port, as this could be unauthorized data exfiltration.

*Since port 443 is the most common port for secure web traffic, generically monitoring 443 may produce a high volume of false positives; network traffic tools can be used to assist in this analysis.

Legitimate traffic via Tor entry/exit nodes is permitted and unexpected/potentially malicious activity via Tor entry/exit nodes is blocked

 

  • Blended approach: Block all Tor traffic to some resources, allow and monitor for others. Given the various licit and illicit uses of Tor, a blended approach may be an appropriate risk mitigation strategy for some organizations (i.e., intentionally allowing traffic to/from Tor only for specific websites and services where legitimate use may be expected and blocking all Tor traffic to/from non-excepted processes/services). This may require continuous re-evaluation as an entity considers its own risk tolerance associated with different applications. The level of effort to implement this approach is high.
Considerations for Blocking Use of Tor

Sophisticated threat actors may leverage additional anonymization technologies—such as virtual private networks (VPNs)—and configurable features within Tor—such as Tor bridges and pluggable transports—to circumvent detection and blocking. Blocking the use of known Tor nodes may not effectively mitigate all hazards but may protect against less sophisticated actors. For example, blocking outbound traffic to known Tor entry nodes could have an appreciable impact in blocking less sophisticated malware from successfully beaconing out to hidden C2 machines obfuscated by Tor. Ultimately, each entity must consider its own internal thresholds and risk tolerance when determining a risk mitigation approach associated with Tor.

Contact Information

To report suspicious or criminal activity related to information found in this Joint Cybersecurity Advisory, contact your local FBI field office at www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field, or the FBI’s 24/7 Cyber Watch (CyWatch) at (855) 292-3937 or by e-mail at CyWatch@fbi.gov. When available, please include the following information regarding the incident: date, time, and location of the incident; type of activity; number of people affected; type of equipment used for the activity; the name of the submitting company or organization; and a designated point of contact. To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov.

Disclaimer

This document is marked TLP:WHITE. Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol, see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp/.

References Revisions
  • July 1, 2020: Initial Version

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-182A: EINSTEIN Data Trends – 30-day Lookback

US-CERT Security Alerts - Tue, 06/30/2020 - 06:34
Original release date: June 30, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p>Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) analysts have compiled the top detection signatures that have been the most active over the month of May in our national Intrusion Detection System (IDS), known as EINSTEIN. This information is meant to give the reader a closer look into what analysts are seeing at the national level and provide technical details on some of the most active threats.</p> <p>IDS is a network tool that uses sensors to monitor inbound and outbound traffic to search for any type of suspicious activity or known threats, alerting analysts when a specific traffic pattern matches with an associated threat. IDS allows users to deploy signatures on these boundary sensors to look for the specific pattern, or network indicator, associated with a known threat.</p> <p>The EINSTEIN Program is an automated process for collecting, correlating, analyzing, and sharing computer security information across the federal civilian departments and agencies. By collecting information from participating federal departments and agencies, CISA builds and enhances our Nation’s cyber-related situational awareness.</p> <p>The signatures CISA created have been included below for analysts across various organizations to use in enhancing their own network defenses.<strong> Note: </strong>CISA has created and tested these signatures in an environment that might not be the same for all organizations, so administrators may need to make changes or updates before using in the following signatures in their local environments.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><p class="tip-intro" style="font-size: 15px;"><em><strong>Note: </strong>the below Snort signatures accounted for over 90 percent of what CISA analysts identified as potential threats using the IDS system for detection.</em></p> <h2>1. NetSupport Manager RAT</h2> <h3>Description</h3> <p>The NetSupport Manager Remote Access Tool (RAT) is a legitimate program that, once installed on a victim’s machine, allows remote administrative control. In a malicious context, it can—among many other functions—be used to steal information. Malicious RATs can be difficult to detect because they do not normally appear in lists of running programs, and they can mimic the behavior of legitimate applications.</p> <h3>Examples</h3> <p>In January 2020, Palo Alto researchers observed the abuse of NetSupport in targeted phishing email campaigns.<a href="https://unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/">[1]</a> In November 2019, Zscaler researchers observed “software update-themed” campaigns tricking users into installing a malicious NetSupport Manager RAT.<a href="https://www.zscaler.com/blogs/research/netsupport-rat-installed-fake-update-notices">[2]</a> The earliest malicious use of NetSupport was seen in a phishing email campaign—reported by FireEye researchers in April 2018.<a href="https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2018/04/fake-software-update-abuses-netsupport-remote-access-tool.html">[3]</a></p> <h3>Snort Signature</h3> <div class="special_container"><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"NetSupportManager:HTTP Client Header contains 'User-Agent|3a 20|NetSupport Manager/'"; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,.tagged; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|NetSupport Manager/"; http_header; fast_pattern:only; content:"CMD="; nocase; http_client_body; depth:4; content:"POST"; nocase; http_method; flowbits:set,.; classtype:http-header; reference:url,unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/; reference:url,www.pentestpartners.com/security-blog/how-to-reverse-engineer-a-protocol/; reference:url,github.com/silence-is-best/c2db;</code></div> <h2>2. Kovter</h2> <h3>Description</h3> <p>Kovter is a fileless Trojan with several variants. This malware started as ransomware that malicious actors used to trick victims into thinking that they need to pay their local police a fine. Cyber actors have also used Kovter to perform click-fraud operations to infect targets and send stolen information from the target machines to command and control servers. Kovter’s evolving features have allowed this malware to rank among the Center for Internet Security’s most prolific malware year after year.<a href="https://www.cisecurity.org/blog/top-10-malware-april-2020/">[4]</a> See <a href="https://youtu.be/D8kC07tu27A?t=671">CISA’s Webinar on Combatting Ransomware</a> for additional information on Kovter.</p> <h3>Snort Signature</h3> <div class="special_container"><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Kovter:HTTP URI POST to CnC Server";; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,.tagged; content:"POST / HTTP/1.1"; depth:15; content:"Content-Type|3a 20|application/x-www-form-urlencoded"; http_header; depth:47; fast_pattern; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|Mozilla/"; http_header; content:!"LOADCURRENCY"; nocase; content:!"Accept"; http_header; content:!"Referer|3a|"; http_header; content:!"Cookie|3a|"; nocase; http_header; pcre:"/^(?:[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{4})*(?:[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{2}==|[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{3}=|[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{4})$/P"; pcre:"/User-Agent\x3a[^\r\n]+\r\nHost\x3a\x20(?:\d{1,3}\.){3}\d{1,3}\r\nContent-Length\x3a\x20[1-5][0-9]{2,3}\r\n(?:Cache-Control|Pragma)\x3a[^\r\n]+\r\n(?:\r\n)?$/H";; classtype:nonstd-tcp;; reference:url,www.malware-traffic-analysis.net/2017/06/29/index2.html;</code></div> <h2>3. XMRig</h2> <h3>Description</h3> <p>XMRig is a type of cryptocurrency miner that uses the resources of an unsuspecting infected machine to mine Monero—a type of cryptocurrency. XMRig can cause a victim computer to overheat and perform poorly by using additional system resources that would otherwise not be active.</p> <h3>Snort Signature</h3> <div class="special_container"><code>alert tcp any any -&gt; any !25 (msg:"XMRIG:Non-Std TCP Client Traffic contains JSONRPC 2.0 Config Data";; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset; content:"|22|jsonrpc|22 3a 22|2.0|22|"; distance:0; content:"|22|method|22 3a 22|login|22|"; distance:0; content:"|22|agent|22 3a 22|XMRig"; nocase; distance:0; fast_pattern; content:"libuv/"; nocase; distance:0; content:!"|22|login|22 3a 22|x|22|"; flowbits:set,; classtype:nonstd-tcp;; reference:url,malware-traffic-analysis.net/2017/11/12/index.html; reference:url,www.mysonicwall.com/sonicalert/searchresults.aspx?ev=article&amp;id=1101;</code></div> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>CISA recommends using the following best practices to strengthen the security posture of an organization's systems. Any configuration changes should be reviewed by system owners and administrators prior to implementation to avoid unwanted impacts.</p> <ul> <li>Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST18-271">Protecting Against Malicious Code</a>.</li> <li>Ensure systems have the latest security updates. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-006">Understanding Patches and Software Updates</a>.</li> <li>Disable file and printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.</li> <li>Restrict users' permissions to install and run unwanted software applications. Do not add users to the local administrators’ group unless required.</li> <li>Enforce a strong password policy. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-002">Choosing and Protecting Passwords</a>.</li> <li>Exercise caution when opening email attachments, even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known. See <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-010">Using Caution with Email Attachments</a>.</li> <li>Enable a personal firewall on agency workstations that is configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.</li> <li>Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.</li> <li>Scan for and remove suspicious email attachments; ensure the scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).</li> <li>Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to sites with unfavorable content.</li> <li>Exercise caution when using removable media (e.g., USB thumb drives, external drives, CDs).</li> <li>Scan all software downloaded from the internet prior to executing.</li> <li>Maintain situational awareness of the latest threats and implement appropriate Access Control Lists (ACLs). <a href="https://public.govdelivery.com/accounts/USDHSUSCERT/subscriber/new">Sign up</a> to receive CISA’s alerts on security topics and threats.</li> <li>Sign up for CISA’s free vulnerability scanning and testing services to help organizations secure internet-facing systems from weak configuration and known vulnerabilities. Email <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto: vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov">vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov</a> to sign up. See <a href="https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-resource-hub">https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-resource-hub</a> for more information about vulnerability scanning and other CISA cybersecurity assessment services.</li> </ul> <h1>Resources</h1> <p><a href="https://unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/">https://unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/</a><br /> <a href="https://threatpost.com/netsupport-manager-rat-nortonlifelock-docs/153387/">https://threatpost.com/netsupport-manager-rat-nortonlifelock-docs/153387/</a><br /> <a href="https://www.zdnet.com/article/new-lokibot-trojan-malware-campaign-comes-disguised-as-a-popular-game-launcher/">https://www.zdnet.com/article/new-lokibot-trojan-malware-campaign-comes-disguised-as-a-popular-game-launcher/</a><br /> <a href="https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/news/cybercrime-and-digital-threats/kovter-an-evolving-malware-gone-fileless">https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/news/cybercrime-and-digital-threats/kovter-an-evolving-malware-gone-fileless</a><br /> <a href="https://www.varonis.com/blog/what-is-mimikatz/">https://www.varonis.com/blog/what-is-mimikatz/</a></p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/">[1] Palo Alto: Cortex XDR™ Detects New Phishing Campaign Installing NetSupport Manager RAT</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.zscaler.com/blogs/research/netsupport-rat-installed-fake-update-notices">[2] Zscaler: NetSupport RAT installed via fake update notices</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2018/04/fake-software-update-abuses-netsupport-remote-access-tool.html">[3] FireEye: Fake Software Update Abuses NetSupport Remote Access Tool</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.cisecurity.org/blog/top-10-malware-april-2020/">[4] Center for Internet Security: Top 10 Malware April 2020</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>June 30, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-182A: EINSTEIN Data Trends – 30-day Lookback

US-CERT Security Alerts - Tue, 06/30/2020 - 06:34
Original release date: June 30, 2020
Summary

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) analysts have compiled the top detection signatures that have been the most active over the month of May in our national Intrusion Detection System (IDS), known as EINSTEIN. This information is meant to give the reader a closer look into what analysts are seeing at the national level and provide technical details on some of the most active threats.

IDS is a network tool that uses sensors to monitor inbound and outbound traffic to search for any type of suspicious activity or known threats, alerting analysts when a specific traffic pattern matches with an associated threat. IDS allows users to deploy signatures on these boundary sensors to look for the specific pattern, or network indicator, associated with a known threat.

The EINSTEIN Program is an automated process for collecting, correlating, analyzing, and sharing computer security information across the federal civilian departments and agencies. By collecting information from participating federal departments and agencies, CISA builds and enhances our Nation’s cyber-related situational awareness.

The signatures CISA created have been included below for analysts across various organizations to use in enhancing their own network defenses. Note: CISA has created and tested these signatures in an environment that might not be the same for all organizations, so administrators may need to make changes or updates before using in the following signatures in their local environments.

Technical Details

Note: the below Snort signatures accounted for over 90 percent of what CISA analysts identified as potential threats using the IDS system for detection.

1. NetSupport Manager RAT Description

The NetSupport Manager Remote Access Tool (RAT) is a legitimate program that, once installed on a victim’s machine, allows remote administrative control. In a malicious context, it can—among many other functions—be used to steal information. Malicious RATs can be difficult to detect because they do not normally appear in lists of running programs, and they can mimic the behavior of legitimate applications.

Examples

In January 2020, Palo Alto researchers observed the abuse of NetSupport in targeted phishing email campaigns.[1] In November 2019, Zscaler researchers observed “software update-themed” campaigns tricking users into installing a malicious NetSupport Manager RAT.[2] The earliest malicious use of NetSupport was seen in a phishing email campaign—reported by FireEye researchers in April 2018.[3]

Snort Signature alert tcp any any -> any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"NetSupportManager:HTTP Client Header contains 'User-Agent|3a 20|NetSupport Manager/'"; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,.tagged; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|NetSupport Manager/"; http_header; fast_pattern:only; content:"CMD="; nocase; http_client_body; depth:4; content:"POST"; nocase; http_method; flowbits:set,.; classtype:http-header; reference:url,unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/; reference:url,www.pentestpartners.com/security-blog/how-to-reverse-engineer-a-protocol/; reference:url,github.com/silence-is-best/c2db; 2. Kovter Description

Kovter is a fileless Trojan with several variants. This malware started as ransomware that malicious actors used to trick victims into thinking that they need to pay their local police a fine. Cyber actors have also used Kovter to perform click-fraud operations to infect targets and send stolen information from the target machines to command and control servers. Kovter’s evolving features have allowed this malware to rank among the Center for Internet Security’s most prolific malware year after year.[4] See CISA’s Webinar on Combatting Ransomware for additional information on Kovter.

Snort Signature alert tcp any any -> any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Kovter:HTTP URI POST to CnC Server";; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,.tagged; content:"POST / HTTP/1.1"; depth:15; content:"Content-Type|3a 20|application/x-www-form-urlencoded"; http_header; depth:47; fast_pattern; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|Mozilla/"; http_header; content:!"LOADCURRENCY"; nocase; content:!"Accept"; http_header; content:!"Referer|3a|"; http_header; content:!"Cookie|3a|"; nocase; http_header; pcre:"/^(?:[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{4})*(?:[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{2}==|[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{3}=|[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{4})$/P"; pcre:"/User-Agent\x3a[^\r\n]+\r\nHost\x3a\x20(?:\d{1,3}\.){3}\d{1,3}\r\nContent-Length\x3a\x20[1-5][0-9]{2,3}\r\n(?:Cache-Control|Pragma)\x3a[^\r\n]+\r\n(?:\r\n)?$/H";; classtype:nonstd-tcp;; reference:url,www.malware-traffic-analysis.net/2017/06/29/index2.html; 3. XMRig Description

XMRig is a type of cryptocurrency miner that uses the resources of an unsuspecting infected machine to mine Monero—a type of cryptocurrency. XMRig can cause a victim computer to overheat and perform poorly by using additional system resources that would otherwise not be active.

Snort Signature alert tcp any any -> any !25 (msg:"XMRIG:Non-Std TCP Client Traffic contains JSONRPC 2.0 Config Data";; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset; content:"|22|jsonrpc|22 3a 22|2.0|22|"; distance:0; content:"|22|method|22 3a 22|login|22|"; distance:0; content:"|22|agent|22 3a 22|XMRig"; nocase; distance:0; fast_pattern; content:"libuv/"; nocase; distance:0; content:!"|22|login|22 3a 22|x|22|"; flowbits:set,; classtype:nonstd-tcp;; reference:url,malware-traffic-analysis.net/2017/11/12/index.html; reference:url,www.mysonicwall.com/sonicalert/searchresults.aspx?ev=article&id=1101; Mitigations

CISA recommends using the following best practices to strengthen the security posture of an organization's systems. Any configuration changes should be reviewed by system owners and administrators prior to implementation to avoid unwanted impacts.

  • Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines. See Protecting Against Malicious Code.
  • Ensure systems have the latest security updates. See Understanding Patches and Software Updates.
  • Disable file and printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.
  • Restrict users' permissions to install and run unwanted software applications. Do not add users to the local administrators’ group unless required.
  • Enforce a strong password policy. See Choosing and Protecting Passwords.
  • Exercise caution when opening email attachments, even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known. See Using Caution with Email Attachments.
  • Enable a personal firewall on agency workstations that is configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.
  • Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.
  • Scan for and remove suspicious email attachments; ensure the scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).
  • Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to sites with unfavorable content.
  • Exercise caution when using removable media (e.g., USB thumb drives, external drives, CDs).
  • Scan all software downloaded from the internet prior to executing.
  • Maintain situational awareness of the latest threats and implement appropriate Access Control Lists (ACLs). Sign up to receive CISA’s alerts on security topics and threats.
  • Sign up for CISA’s free vulnerability scanning and testing services to help organizations secure internet-facing systems from weak configuration and known vulnerabilities. Email vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov to sign up. See https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-resource-hub for more information about vulnerability scanning and other CISA cybersecurity assessment services.
Resources

https://unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/
https://threatpost.com/netsupport-manager-rat-nortonlifelock-docs/153387/
https://www.zdnet.com/article/new-lokibot-trojan-malware-campaign-comes-disguised-as-a-popular-game-launcher/
https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/news/cybercrime-and-digital-threats/kovter-an-evolving-malware-gone-fileless
https://www.varonis.com/blog/what-is-mimikatz/

References Revisions
  • June 30, 2020: Initial Version

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-133A: Top 10 Routinely Exploited Vulnerabilities

US-CERT Security Alerts - Tue, 05/12/2020 - 05:00
Original release date: May 12, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p>The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the broader U.S. Government are providing this technical guidance to advise IT security professionals at public and private sector organizations to place an increased priority on patching the most commonly known vulnerabilities exploited by sophisticated foreign cyber actors.</p> <p>This alert provides details on vulnerabilities routinely exploited by foreign cyber actors—primarily Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs)<a href="https://cve.mitre.org/cve/ ">[1]</a>—to help organizations reduce the risk of these foreign threats.</p> <p>Foreign cyber actors continue to exploit publicly known—and often dated—software vulnerabilities against broad target sets, including public and private sector organizations. Exploitation of these vulnerabilities often requires fewer resources as compared with zero-day exploits for which no patches are available.</p> <p>The public and private sectors could degrade some foreign cyber threats to U.S. interests through an increased effort to patch their systems and implement programs to keep system patching up to date. A concerted campaign to patch these vulnerabilities would introduce friction into foreign adversaries’ operational tradecraft and force them to develop or acquire exploits that are more costly and less widely effective. A concerted patching campaign would also bolster network security by focusing scarce defensive resources on the observed activities of foreign adversaries.</p> <p>For indicators of compromise (IOCs) and additional guidance associated with the CVEs in this Alert, see the each entry within the Mitigations section below.&nbsp;<a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/AA20-133A_Top_10_Routinely_Exploited_Vulnerabilities_S508C.pdf">Click here</a> for a PDF version of this report.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><h2>Top 10 Most Exploited Vulnerabilities 2016–2019</h2> <p>U.S. Government reporting has identified the top 10 most exploited vulnerabilities by state, nonstate, and unattributed cyber actors from 2016 to 2019 as follows: CVE-2017-11882, CVE-2017-0199, CVE-2017-5638, CVE-2012-0158, CVE-2019-0604, CVE-2017-0143, CVE-2018-4878, CVE-2017-8759, CVE-2015-1641, and CVE-2018-7600.</p> <ul> <li>According to U.S. Government technical analysis, malicious cyber actors most often exploited vulnerabilities in Microsoft’s Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technology. OLE allows documents to contain embedded content from other applications such as spreadsheets. After OLE the second-most-reported vulnerable technology was a widespread Web framework known as Apache Struts.</li> <li>Of the top 10, the three vulnerabilities used most frequently across state-sponsored cyber actors from China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia are CVE-2017-11882, CVE-2017-0199, and CVE-2012-0158. All three of these vulnerabilities are related to Microsoft’s OLE technology.</li> <li>As of December 2019, Chinese state cyber actors were frequently exploiting the same vulnerability—CVE-2012-0158—that the U.S. Government publicly assessed in 2015 was the most used in their cyber operations.<a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA15-119A">[2]</a> This trend suggests that organizations have not yet widely implemented patches for this vulnerability and that Chinese state cyber actors may continue to incorporate dated flaws into their operational tradecraft as long as they remain effective.</li> <li>Deploying patches often requires IT security professionals to balance the need to mitigate vulnerabilities with the need for keeping systems running and ensuring installed patches are compatible with other software. This can require a significant investment of effort, particularly when mitigating multiple flaws at the same time.</li> <li>A U.S. industry study released in early 2019 similarly discovered that the flaws malicious cyber actors exploited the most consistently were in Microsoft and Adobe Flash products, probably because of the widespread use of these technologies.<a href="https://www.recordedfuture.com/top-vulnerabilities-2019/">[3]</a>&nbsp; Four of the industry study’s top 10 most exploited flaws also appear on this Alert’s list, highlighting how U.S. Government and private-sector data sources may complement each other to enhance security.</li> </ul> <h2>Vulnerabilities Exploited in 2020</h2> <p>In addition to the top 10 vulnerabilities from 2016 to 2019 listed above, the U.S. Government has reported that the following vulnerabilities are being routinely exploited by sophisticated foreign cyber actors in 2020:</p> <ul> <li>Malicious cyber actors are increasingly targeting unpatched Virtual Private Network vulnerabilities. <ul> <li>An arbitrary code execution vulnerability in Citrix VPN appliances, known as CVE-2019-19781, has been detected in exploits in the wild.</li> <li>An arbitrary file reading vulnerability in Pulse Secure VPN servers, known as CVE-2019-11510, continues to be an attractive target for malicious actors.</li> </ul> </li> <li>March 2020 brought an abrupt shift to work-from-home that necessitated, for many organizations, rapid deployment of cloud collaboration services, such as Microsoft Office 365 (O365). Malicious cyber actors are targeting organizations whose hasty deployment of Microsoft O365 may have led to oversights in security configurations and vulnerable to attack.</li> <li>Cybersecurity weaknesses—such as poor employee education on social engineering attacks and a lack of system recovery and contingency plans—have continued to make organizations susceptible to ransomware attacks in 2020.</li> </ul> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>This Alert provides mitigations for each of the top vulnerabilities identified above. In addition to the mitigations listed below, CISA, FBI, and the broader U.S. Government recommend that organizations transition away from any end-of-life software.</p> <h2>Mitigations for the Top 10 Most Exploited Vulnerabilities 2016–2019</h2> <p><strong>Note:</strong> The lists of associated malware corresponding to each CVE below is not meant to be exhaustive but instead is intended to identify a malware family commonly associated with exploiting the CVE.&nbsp;</p> <p><u><strong>CVE-2017-11882</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Office 2007 SP3/2010 SP2/2013 SP1/2016 Products</li> <li>Associated Malware: Loki, FormBook, Pony/FAREIT</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-11882">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-11882</a></li> <li>IOCs: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133e">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133e</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2017-0199</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Office 2007 SP3/2010 SP2/2013 SP1/2016, Vista SP2, Server 2008 SP2, Windows 7 SP1, Windows 8.1</li> <li>Associated Malware: FINSPY, LATENTBOT, Dridex</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-0199">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-0199</a></li> <li>IOCs: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133g">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133g</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133h">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133h</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133p">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133p</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2017-5638</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Apache Struts 2 2.3.x before 2.3.32 and 2.5.x before 2.5.10.1</li> <li>Associated Malware: JexBoss</li> <li>Mitigation: Upgrade to Struts 2.3.32 or Struts 2.5.10.1</li> <li>More Detail: <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/AR18-312A">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/AR18-312A</a></li> <li><a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-5638">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-5638</a> &nbsp;</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2012-0158</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Office 2003 SP3, 2007 SP2 and SP3, and 2010 Gold and SP1; Office 2003 Web Components SP3; SQL Server 2000 SP4, 2005 SP4, and 2008 SP2, SP3, and R2; BizTalk Server 2002 SP1; Commerce Server 2002 SP4, 2007 SP2, and 2009 Gold and R2; Visual FoxPro 8.0 SP1 and 9.0 SP2; and Visual Basic 6.0</li> <li>Associated Malware: Dridex</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa19-339a">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa19-339a</a></li> <li><a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2012-0158">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2012-0158</a></li> </ul> </li> <li>IOCs: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133i">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133i</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133j">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133j</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133k">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133k</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133l">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133l</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133n">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133n</a>, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133o">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133o</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2019-0604</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft SharePoint</li> <li>Associated Malware: China Chopper</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-0604">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-0604</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2017-0143</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Windows Vista SP2; Windows Server 2008 SP2 and R2 SP1; Windows 7 SP1; Windows 8.1; Windows Server 2012 Gold and R2; Windows RT 8.1; and Windows 10 Gold, 1511, and 1607; and Windows Server 2016</li> <li>Associated Malware: Multiple using the EternalSynergy and EternalBlue Exploit Kit</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-0143">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-0143</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2018-4878</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Adobe Flash Player before 28.0.0.161</li> <li>Associated Malware: DOGCALL</li> <li>Mitigation: Update Adobe Flash Player installation to the latest version</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-4878">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-4878</a></li> <li>IOCs: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133d">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133d</a></li> </ul> <p><strong><u>CVE-2017-8759</u></strong></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0, 3.5, 3.5.1, 4.5.2, 4.6, 4.6.1, 4.6.2 and 4.7</li> <li>Associated Malware: FINSPY, FinFisher, WingBird</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-8759">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-8759</a> &nbsp;</li> <li>IOCs: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133f">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133f</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2015-1641</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Word 2007 SP3, Office 2010 SP2, Word 2010 SP2, Word 2013 SP1, Word 2013 RT SP1, Word for Mac 2011, Office Compatibility Pack SP3, Word Automation Services on SharePoint Server 2010 SP2 and 2013 SP1, and Office Web Apps Server 2010 SP2 and 2013 SP1</li> <li>Associated Malware: Toshliph, UWarrior</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2015-1641">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2015-1641</a></li> <li>IOCs: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133m">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133m</a></li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2018-7600</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Drupal before 7.58, 8.x before 8.3.9, 8.4.x before 8.4.6, and 8.5.x before 8.5.1</li> <li>Associated Malware: Kitty</li> <li>Mitigation: Upgrade to the most recent version of Drupal 7 or 8 core.</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-7600">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-7600</a></li> </ul> <h2>Mitigations for Vulnerabilities Exploited in 2020</h2> <p><strong><u>CVE-2019-11510</u></strong></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Pulse Connect Secure 9.0R1 - 9.0R3.3, 8.3R1 - 8.3R7, 8.2R1 - 8.2R12, 8.1R1 - 8.1R15 and Pulse Policy Secure 9.0R1 - 9.0R3.1, 5.4R1 - 5.4R7, 5.3R1 - 5.3R12, 5.2R1 - 5.2R12, 5.1R1 - 5.1R15</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Pulse Secure devices with the latest security patches.</li> <li>More Detail: <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-107a">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-107a</a></li> <li><a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-11510">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-11510</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2020/04/28/ransomware-groups-continue-to-target-healthcare-critical-services-heres-how-to-reduce-risk/">https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2020/04/28/ransomware-groups-continue-to-target-healthcare-critical-services-heres-how-to-reduce-risk/</a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><u><strong>CVE-2019-19781</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Citrix Application Delivery Controller, Citrix Gateway, and Citrix SDWAN WANOP</li> <li>Mitigation: Update affected Citrix devices with the latest security patches</li> <li>More Detail: <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-020a">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-020a</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-031a">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-031a</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.fireeye.com/blog/products-and-services/2020/01/fireeye-and-citrix-tool-scans-for-iocs-related-to-vulnerability.html">https://www.fireeye.com/blog/products-and-services/2020/01/fireeye-and-citrix-tool-scans-for-iocs-related-to-vulnerability.html</a></li> <li><a href="https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-19781">https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-19781</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2020/04/28/ransomware-groups-continue-to-target-healthcare-critical-services-heres-how-to-reduce-risk/">https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/2020/04/28/ransomware-groups-continue-to-target-healthcare-critical-services-heres-how-to-reduce-risk/</a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> <p><u><strong>Oversights in Microsoft O365 Security Configurations</strong></u></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Microsoft O365</li> <li>Mitigation: Follow Microsoft O365 security recommendations</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-120a">https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-120a</a>&nbsp;</li> </ul> <p><strong><u>Organizational Cybersecurity Weaknesses</u></strong></p> <ul> <li>Vulnerable Products: Systems, networks, and data</li> <li>Mitigation: Follow cybersecurity best practices</li> <li>More Detail: <a href="https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-essentials">https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-essentials</a></li> </ul> <h2>CISA’s Free Cybersecurity Services</h2> <p>Adversaries use known vulnerabilities and phishing attacks to compromise the security of organizations. CISA offers several free scanning and testing services to help organizations reduce their exposure to threats by taking a proactive approach to mitigating attack vectors.</p> <p><strong>Cyber Hygiene: Vulnerability Scanning</strong> helps secure your internet-facing systems from weak configuration and known vulnerabilities. It also encourages organizations to adopt modern security best practices. CISA performs regular network and vulnerability scans and delivers a weekly report for your action. Once initiated, this service is mostly automated and requires little direct interaction. After CISA receives the required paperwork for Cyber Hygiene, our scans will start within 72 hours and you’ll begin receiving reports within two weeks.</p> <p><strong>Web Application Service</strong> checks your publicly accessible web sites for potential bugs and weak configurations. It provides a “snapshot” of your publicly accessible web applications and also checks functionality and performance in your application.<br /> If your organization would like these services or want more information about other useful services, please email <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov">vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov</a>.</p> <h2>CISA Online Resources</h2> <p><a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/patch_factory_S508C.pdf">The Patch Factory</a>: CISA infographic depicting the global infrastructure for managing vulnerabilities.</p> <p><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-120a">CISA Alert: (AA20-120A) Microsoft Office 365 Security Recommendations</a>: recommendations for organizations to review and ensure their O365 environment is configured to protect, detect, and respond against would-be attackers.</p> <p><a href="https://www.cisa.gov/cyber-essentials">CISA’s Cyber Essentials</a>: a guide for leaders of small businesses as well as leaders of small and local government agencies to develop an actionable understanding of where to start implementing organizational cybersecurity practices.</p> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>If you have any further questions related to this Joint Alert, please contact the FBI at either your local Cyber Task Force or FBI CyWatch.</p> <ul> <li>You can find your local field offices at <a href="https://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field">https://www.fbi.gov/contact-us/field</a></li> <li>CyWatch can be contacted through e-mail at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:cywatch@fbi.gov">cywatch@fbi.gov</a> or by phone at 1-855-292-3937</li> </ul> <p>To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov">CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://cve.mitre.org/cve/">[1] Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) list</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA15-119A">[2] CISA Alert (TA15-119A). Top 30 Targeted High Risk Vulnerabilities. (2016, September 29)</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.recordedfuture.com/top-vulnerabilities-2019/">[3] Recorded Future. 2019 Vulnerability Report: Cybercriminals Continue to Target Microsoft Products. (2020, February 4)</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>May 12, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-133A: Top 10 Routinely Exploited Vulnerabilities

US-CERT Security Alerts - Tue, 05/12/2020 - 05:00
Original release date: May 12, 2020
Summary

The Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the broader U.S. Government are providing this technical guidance to advise IT security professionals at public and private sector organizations to place an increased priority on patching the most commonly known vulnerabilities exploited by sophisticated foreign cyber actors.

This alert provides details on vulnerabilities routinely exploited by foreign cyber actors—primarily Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs)[1]—to help organizations reduce the risk of these foreign threats.

Foreign cyber actors continue to exploit publicly known—and often dated—software vulnerabilities against broad target sets, including public and private sector organizations. Exploitation of these vulnerabilities often requires fewer resources as compared with zero-day exploits for which no patches are available.

The public and private sectors could degrade some foreign cyber threats to U.S. interests through an increased effort to patch their systems and implement programs to keep system patching up to date. A concerted campaign to patch these vulnerabilities would introduce friction into foreign adversaries’ operational tradecraft and force them to develop or acquire exploits that are more costly and less widely effective. A concerted patching campaign would also bolster network security by focusing scarce defensive resources on the observed activities of foreign adversaries.

For indicators of compromise (IOCs) and additional guidance associated with the CVEs in this Alert, see the each entry within the Mitigations section below. Click here for a PDF version of this report.

Technical DetailsTop 10 Most Exploited Vulnerabilities 2016–2019

U.S. Government reporting has identified the top 10 most exploited vulnerabilities by state, nonstate, and unattributed cyber actors from 2016 to 2019 as follows: CVE-2017-11882, CVE-2017-0199, CVE-2017-5638, CVE-2012-0158, CVE-2019-0604, CVE-2017-0143, CVE-2018-4878, CVE-2017-8759, CVE-2015-1641, and CVE-2018-7600.

  • According to U.S. Government technical analysis, malicious cyber actors most often exploited vulnerabilities in Microsoft’s Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) technology. OLE allows documents to contain embedded content from other applications such as spreadsheets. After OLE the second-most-reported vulnerable technology was a widespread Web framework known as Apache Struts.
  • Of the top 10, the three vulnerabilities used most frequently across state-sponsored cyber actors from China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia are CVE-2017-11882, CVE-2017-0199, and CVE-2012-0158. All three of these vulnerabilities are related to Microsoft’s OLE technology.
  • As of December 2019, Chinese state cyber actors were frequently exploiting the same vulnerability—CVE-2012-0158—that the U.S. Government publicly assessed in 2015 was the most used in their cyber operations.[2] This trend suggests that organizations have not yet widely implemented patches for this vulnerability and that Chinese state cyber actors may continue to incorporate dated flaws into their operational tradecraft as long as they remain effective.
  • Deploying patches often requires IT security professionals to balance the need to mitigate vulnerabilities with the need for keeping systems running and ensuring installed patches are compatible with other software. This can require a significant investment of effort, particularly when mitigating multiple flaws at the same time.
  • A U.S. industry study released in early 2019 similarly discovered that the flaws malicious cyber actors exploited the most consistently were in Microsoft and Adobe Flash products, probably because of the widespread use of these technologies.[3]  Four of the industry study’s top 10 most exploited flaws also appear on this Alert’s list, highlighting how U.S. Government and private-sector data sources may complement each other to enhance security.
Vulnerabilities Exploited in 2020

In addition to the top 10 vulnerabilities from 2016 to 2019 listed above, the U.S. Government has reported that the following vulnerabilities are being routinely exploited by sophisticated foreign cyber actors in 2020:

  • Malicious cyber actors are increasingly targeting unpatched Virtual Private Network vulnerabilities.
    • An arbitrary code execution vulnerability in Citrix VPN appliances, known as CVE-2019-19781, has been detected in exploits in the wild.
    • An arbitrary file reading vulnerability in Pulse Secure VPN servers, known as CVE-2019-11510, continues to be an attractive target for malicious actors.
  • March 2020 brought an abrupt shift to work-from-home that necessitated, for many organizations, rapid deployment of cloud collaboration services, such as Microsoft Office 365 (O365). Malicious cyber actors are targeting organizations whose hasty deployment of Microsoft O365 may have led to oversights in security configurations and vulnerable to attack.
  • Cybersecurity weaknesses—such as poor employee education on social engineering attacks and a lack of system recovery and contingency plans—have continued to make organizations susceptible to ransomware attacks in 2020.
Mitigations

This Alert provides mitigations for each of the top vulnerabilities identified above. In addition to the mitigations listed below, CISA, FBI, and the broader U.S. Government recommend that organizations transition away from any end-of-life software.

Mitigations for the Top 10 Most Exploited Vulnerabilities 2016–2019

Note: The lists of associated malware corresponding to each CVE below is not meant to be exhaustive but instead is intended to identify a malware family commonly associated with exploiting the CVE. 

CVE-2017-11882

CVE-2017-0199

CVE-2017-5638

CVE-2012-0158

CVE-2019-0604

CVE-2017-0143

  • Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Windows Vista SP2; Windows Server 2008 SP2 and R2 SP1; Windows 7 SP1; Windows 8.1; Windows Server 2012 Gold and R2; Windows RT 8.1; and Windows 10 Gold, 1511, and 1607; and Windows Server 2016
  • Associated Malware: Multiple using the EternalSynergy and EternalBlue Exploit Kit
  • Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches
  • More Detail: https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2017-0143

CVE-2018-4878

CVE-2017-8759

CVE-2015-1641

  • Vulnerable Products: Microsoft Word 2007 SP3, Office 2010 SP2, Word 2010 SP2, Word 2013 SP1, Word 2013 RT SP1, Word for Mac 2011, Office Compatibility Pack SP3, Word Automation Services on SharePoint Server 2010 SP2 and 2013 SP1, and Office Web Apps Server 2010 SP2 and 2013 SP1
  • Associated Malware: Toshliph, UWarrior
  • Mitigation: Update affected Microsoft products with the latest security patches
  • More Detail: https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2015-1641
  • IOCs: https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/ar20-133m

CVE-2018-7600

  • Vulnerable Products: Drupal before 7.58, 8.x before 8.3.9, 8.4.x before 8.4.6, and 8.5.x before 8.5.1
  • Associated Malware: Kitty
  • Mitigation: Upgrade to the most recent version of Drupal 7 or 8 core.
  • More Detail: https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-7600
Mitigations for Vulnerabilities Exploited in 2020

CVE-2019-11510

CVE-2019-19781

Oversights in Microsoft O365 Security Configurations

Organizational Cybersecurity Weaknesses

CISA’s Free Cybersecurity Services

Adversaries use known vulnerabilities and phishing attacks to compromise the security of organizations. CISA offers several free scanning and testing services to help organizations reduce their exposure to threats by taking a proactive approach to mitigating attack vectors.

Cyber Hygiene: Vulnerability Scanning helps secure your internet-facing systems from weak configuration and known vulnerabilities. It also encourages organizations to adopt modern security best practices. CISA performs regular network and vulnerability scans and delivers a weekly report for your action. Once initiated, this service is mostly automated and requires little direct interaction. After CISA receives the required paperwork for Cyber Hygiene, our scans will start within 72 hours and you’ll begin receiving reports within two weeks.

Web Application Service checks your publicly accessible web sites for potential bugs and weak configurations. It provides a “snapshot” of your publicly accessible web applications and also checks functionality and performance in your application.
If your organization would like these services or want more information about other useful services, please email vulnerability_info@cisa.dhs.gov.

CISA Online Resources

The Patch Factory: CISA infographic depicting the global infrastructure for managing vulnerabilities.

CISA Alert: (AA20-120A) Microsoft Office 365 Security Recommendations: recommendations for organizations to review and ensure their O365 environment is configured to protect, detect, and respond against would-be attackers.

CISA’s Cyber Essentials: a guide for leaders of small businesses as well as leaders of small and local government agencies to develop an actionable understanding of where to start implementing organizational cybersecurity practices.

Contact Information

If you have any further questions related to this Joint Alert, please contact the FBI at either your local Cyber Task Force or FBI CyWatch.

To request incident response resources or technical assistance related to these threats, contact CISA at CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov.

 

References Revisions
  • May 12, 2020: Initial Version

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-126A: APT Groups Target Healthcare and Essential Services

US-CERT Security Alerts - Tue, 05/05/2020 - 04:58
Original release date: May 5, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p><strong>This is a joint alert from the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC).</strong></p> <p>CISA and NCSC continue to see indications that advanced persistent threat (APT) groups are exploiting the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as part of their cyber operations. This joint alert highlights ongoing activity by APT groups against organizations involved in both national and international COVID-19 responses. It describes some of the methods these actors are using to target organizations and provides mitigation advice.</p> <p>The joint CISA-NCSC <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-099a">Alert: (AA20-099A) COVID-19 Exploited by Malicious Cyber Actors</a> from April 8, 2020, previously detailed the exploitation of the COVID-19 pandemic by cybercriminals and APT groups. This joint CISA-NCSC Alert provides an update to ongoing malicious cyber activity relating to COVID-19. For a graphical summary of CISA’s joint COVID-19 Alerts with NCSC, see the following <a href="https://www.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Joint_CISA_UK_Tip-COVID-19_Cyber_Threat_Exploitation_S508C.pdf">guide</a>.</p> <h3>COVID-19-related targeting</h3> <p>APT actors are actively targeting organizations involved in both national and international COVID-19 responses. These organizations include healthcare bodies, pharmaceutical companies, academia, medical research organizations, and local governments.</p> <p>APT actors frequently target organizations in order to collect bulk personal information, intellectual property, and intelligence that aligns with national priorities.</p> <p>The pandemic has likely raised additional interest for APT actors to gather information related to COVID-19. For example, actors may seek to obtain intelligence on national and international healthcare policy, or acquire sensitive data on COVID-19-related research.</p> <h3>Targeting of pharmaceutical and research organizations</h3> <p>CISA and NCSC are currently investigating a number of incidents in which threat actors are targeting pharmaceutical companies, medical research organizations, and universities. APT groups frequently target such organizations in order to steal sensitive research data and intellectual property for commercial and state benefit. Organizations involved in COVID-19-related research are attractive targets for APT actors looking to obtain information for their domestic research efforts into COVID-19-related medicine.</p> <p>These organizations’ global reach and international supply chains increase exposure to malicious cyber actors. Actors view supply chains as a weak link that they can exploit to obtain access to better-protected targets. Many supply chain elements have also been affected by the shift to remote working and the new vulnerabilities that have resulted.</p> <p>Recently CISA and NCSC have seen APT actors scanning the external websites of targeted companies and looking for vulnerabilities in unpatched software. Actors are known to take advantage of Citrix vulnerability CVE-2019-19781<a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-031a">[1]</a>,<a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/citrix-alert">[2]</a>&nbsp;and vulnerabilities in virtual private network (VPN) products from Pulse Secure, Fortinet, and Palo Alto.<a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-010a">[3]</a>,<a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/alert-vpn-vulnerabilities">[4]</a></p> <h3>COVID-19-related password spraying activity</h3> <p>CISA and NCSC are actively investigating large-scale password spraying campaigns conducted by APT groups. These actors are using this type of attack to target healthcare entities in a number of countries—including the United Kingdom and the United States—as well as international healthcare organizations.</p> <p>Previously, APT groups have used password spraying to target a range of organizations and companies across sectors—including government, emergency services, law enforcement, academia and research organizations, financial institutions, and telecommunications and retail companies.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><p><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/blog-post/spray-you-spray-me-defending-against-password-spraying-attacks">Password spraying</a> is a commonly used style of brute force attack in which the attacker tries a single and commonly used password against many accounts before moving on to try a second password, and so on. This technique allows the attacker to remain undetected by avoiding rapid or frequent account lockouts. These attacks are successful because, for any given large set of users, there will likely be some with common passwords.</p> <p>Malicious cyber actors, including APT groups, collate names from various online sources that provide organizational details and use this information to identify possible accounts for targeted institutions. The actors will then “spray” the identified accounts with lists of commonly used passwords.</p> <p>Once the malicious cyber actor compromises a single account, they will use it to access other accounts where the credentials are reused. Additionally, the actor could attempt to move laterally across the network to steal additional data and implement further attacks against other accounts within the network.</p> <p>In previous incidents investigated by CISA and NCSC, malicious cyber actors used password spraying to compromise email accounts in an organization and then, in turn, used these accounts to download the victim organization’s Global Address List (GAL). The actors then used the GAL to password spray further accounts.</p> <p>NCSC has previously provided <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/blog-post/passwords-passwords-everywhere">examples of frequently found passwords</a>, which attackers are known to use in password spray attacks to attempt to gain access to corporate accounts and networks. In these attacks, malicious cyber actors often use passwords based on the month of the year, seasons, and the name of the company or organization.</p> <p>CISA and NCSC continue to investigate activity linked to large-scale password spraying campaigns. APT actors will continue to exploit COVID-19 as they seek to answer additional intelligence questions relating to the pandemic. CISA and NCSC advise organizations to follow the mitigation advice below in view of this heightened activity.</p> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>CISA and NCSC have previously published information for organizations on password spraying and improving password policy. Putting this into practice will significantly reduce the chance of compromise from this kind of attack.</p> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/TA18-086A">CISA alert on password spraying attacks</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-002">CISA guidance on choosing and protecting passwords</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST05-012">CISA guidance on supplementing passwords</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/blog-post/spray-you-spray-me-defending-against-password-spraying-attacks">NCSC guidance on password spraying attacks</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/collection/passwords">NCSC guidance on password administration for system owners</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/blog-post/passwords-passwords-everywhere">NCSC guidance on password deny lists</a></li> </ul> <p>CISA’s <a href="https://www.cisa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/19_1106_cisa_CISA_Cyber_Essentials_S508C_0.pdf">Cyber Essentials</a> for small organizations provides guiding principles for leaders to develop a culture of security and specific actions for IT professionals to put that culture into action. Additionally, the UK government’s <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/cyberaware/home">Cyber Aware</a> campaign provides useful advice for individuals on how to stay secure online during the coronavirus pandemic. This includes advice on protecting passwords, accounts, and devices.</p> <p>A number of other mitigations will be of use in defending against the campaigns detailed in this report:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Update VPNs, network infrastructure devices, and devices being used to remote into work environments with the latest software patches and configurations. </strong>See CISA’s <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-073a">guidance on enterprise VPN security</a> and NCSC <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/collection/mobile-device-guidance/virtual-private-networks">guidance on virtual private networks</a> for more information.</li> <li><strong>Use multi-factor authentication to reduce the impact of password compromises.</strong> See the U.S. National Cybersecurity Awareness Month’s <a href="https://niccs.us-cert.gov/sites/default/files/documents/pdf/ncsam_howtoguidemfa_508.pdf?trackDocs=ncsam_howtoguidemfa_508.pdf">how-to guide for multi-factor authentication</a>. Also see NCSC guidance on <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/guidance/multi-factor-authentication-online-services">multi-factor authentication services</a> and <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/guidance/setting-two-factor-authentication-2fa">setting up two factor authentication</a>.</li> <li><strong>Protect the management interfaces of your critical operational systems.</strong> In particular, use browse-down architecture to prevent attackers easily gaining privileged access to your most vital assets. See <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/blog-post/protect-your-management-interfaces">the NCSC blog on protecting management interfaces</a>.</li> <li><strong>Set up a security monitoring capability </strong>so you are collecting the data that will be needed to analyze network intrusions. See the <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/guidance/introduction-logging-security-purposes">NCSC introduction to logging security purposes</a>.</li> <li><strong>Review and refresh your incident management processes.</strong> See <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/guidance/10-steps-incident-management">the NCSC guidance on incident management</a>.</li> <li><strong>Use modern systems and software.</strong> These have better security built in. If you cannot move off out-of-date platforms and applications straight away, there are short-term steps you can take to improve your position. See <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/guidance/obsolete-platforms-security">the NCSC guidance on obsolete platform security</a>.</li> <li><strong>Further information: </strong>Invest in preventing malware-based attacks across various scenarios. See CISA’s guidance on <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/Ransomware">ransomware</a> and <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST18-271">protecting against malicious code</a>. Also see <a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/guidance/mitigating-malware-and-ransomware-attacks">the NCSC guidance on mitigating malware and ransomware attacks</a>.</li> </ul> <h3>Contact Information</h3><p>CISA encourages U.S. users and organizations to contribute any additional information that may relate to this threat by emailing <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.govmailto:CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov">CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov</a>.</p> <p>The NCSC encourages UK organizations to report any suspicious activity to the NCSC via their website: <a href="https://report.ncsc.gov.uk/">https://report.ncsc.gov.uk/</a>.</p> <h2>Disclaimers</h2> <p><em>This report draws on information derived from CISA, NCSC, and industry sources. Any findings and recommendations made have not been provided with the intention of avoiding all risks and following the recommendations will not remove all such risk. Ownership of information risks remains with the relevant system owner at all times.</em></p> <p><em>CISA does not endorse any commercial product or service, including any subjects of analysis. Any reference to specific commercial products, processes, or services by service mark, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply their endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by CISA.</em></p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-031a">[1] CISA Alert: Detecting Citrix CVE-2019-19781</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/citrix-alert">[2] NCSC Alert: Actors exploiting Citrix products vulnerability</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/alerts/aa20-010a">[3] CISA Alert: Continued Exploitation of Pulse Secure VPN Vulnerability</a></li> <li><a href="https://www.ncsc.gov.uk/news/alert-vpn-vulnerabilities">[4] NCSC Alert: Vulnerabilities exploited in VPN products used worldwide</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>May 5, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-126A: APT Groups Target Healthcare and Essential Services

US-CERT Security Alerts - Tue, 05/05/2020 - 04:58
Original release date: May 5, 2020
Summary

This is a joint alert from the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and the United Kingdom’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC).

CISA and NCSC continue to see indications that advanced persistent threat (APT) groups are exploiting the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as part of their cyber operations. This joint alert highlights ongoing activity by APT groups against organizations involved in both national and international COVID-19 responses. It describes some of the methods these actors are using to target organizations and provides mitigation advice.

The joint CISA-NCSC Alert: (AA20-099A) COVID-19 Exploited by Malicious Cyber Actors from April 8, 2020, previously detailed the exploitation of the COVID-19 pandemic by cybercriminals and APT groups. This joint CISA-NCSC Alert provides an update to ongoing malicious cyber activity relating to COVID-19. For a graphical summary of CISA’s joint COVID-19 Alerts with NCSC, see the following guide.

COVID-19-related targeting

APT actors are actively targeting organizations involved in both national and international COVID-19 responses. These organizations include healthcare bodies, pharmaceutical companies, academia, medical research organizations, and local governments.

APT actors frequently target organizations in order to collect bulk personal information, intellectual property, and intelligence that aligns with national priorities.

The pandemic has likely raised additional interest for APT actors to gather information related to COVID-19. For example, actors may seek to obtain intelligence on national and international healthcare policy, or acquire sensitive data on COVID-19-related research.

Targeting of pharmaceutical and research organizations

CISA and NCSC are currently investigating a number of incidents in which threat actors are targeting pharmaceutical companies, medical research organizations, and universities. APT groups frequently target such organizations in order to steal sensitive research data and intellectual property for commercial and state benefit. Organizations involved in COVID-19-related research are attractive targets for APT actors looking to obtain information for their domestic research efforts into COVID-19-related medicine.

These organizations’ global reach and international supply chains increase exposure to malicious cyber actors. Actors view supply chains as a weak link that they can exploit to obtain access to better-protected targets. Many supply chain elements have also been affected by the shift to remote working and the new vulnerabilities that have resulted.

Recently CISA and NCSC have seen APT actors scanning the external websites of targeted companies and looking for vulnerabilities in unpatched software. Actors are known to take advantage of Citrix vulnerability CVE-2019-19781[1],[2] and vulnerabilities in virtual private network (VPN) products from Pulse Secure, Fortinet, and Palo Alto.[3],[4]

COVID-19-related password spraying activity

CISA and NCSC are actively investigating large-scale password spraying campaigns conducted by APT groups. These actors are using this type of attack to target healthcare entities in a number of countries—including the United Kingdom and the United States—as well as international healthcare organizations.

Previously, APT groups have used password spraying to target a range of organizations and companies across sectors—including government, emergency services, law enforcement, academia and research organizations, financial institutions, and telecommunications and retail companies.

Technical Details

Password spraying is a commonly used style of brute force attack in which the attacker tries a single and commonly used password against many accounts before moving on to try a second password, and so on. This technique allows the attacker to remain undetected by avoiding rapid or frequent account lockouts. These attacks are successful because, for any given large set of users, there will likely be some with common passwords.

Malicious cyber actors, including APT groups, collate names from various online sources that provide organizational details and use this information to identify possible accounts for targeted institutions. The actors will then “spray” the identified accounts with lists of commonly used passwords.

Once the malicious cyber actor compromises a single account, they will use it to access other accounts where the credentials are reused. Additionally, the actor could attempt to move laterally across the network to steal additional data and implement further attacks against other accounts within the network.

In previous incidents investigated by CISA and NCSC, malicious cyber actors used password spraying to compromise email accounts in an organization and then, in turn, used these accounts to download the victim organization’s Global Address List (GAL). The actors then used the GAL to password spray further accounts.

NCSC has previously provided examples of frequently found passwords, which attackers are known to use in password spray attacks to attempt to gain access to corporate accounts and networks. In these attacks, malicious cyber actors often use passwords based on the month of the year, seasons, and the name of the company or organization.

CISA and NCSC continue to investigate activity linked to large-scale password spraying campaigns. APT actors will continue to exploit COVID-19 as they seek to answer additional intelligence questions relating to the pandemic. CISA and NCSC advise organizations to follow the mitigation advice below in view of this heightened activity.

Mitigations

CISA and NCSC have previously published information for organizations on password spraying and improving password policy. Putting this into practice will significantly reduce the chance of compromise from this kind of attack.

CISA’s Cyber Essentials for small organizations provides guiding principles for leaders to develop a culture of security and specific actions for IT professionals to put that culture into action. Additionally, the UK government’s Cyber Aware campaign provides useful advice for individuals on how to stay secure online during the coronavirus pandemic. This includes advice on protecting passwords, accounts, and devices.

A number of other mitigations will be of use in defending against the campaigns detailed in this report:

Contact Information

CISA encourages U.S. users and organizations to contribute any additional information that may relate to this threat by emailing CISAServiceDesk@cisa.dhs.gov.

The NCSC encourages UK organizations to report any suspicious activity to the NCSC via their website: https://report.ncsc.gov.uk/.

Disclaimers

This report draws on information derived from CISA, NCSC, and industry sources. Any findings and recommendations made have not been provided with the intention of avoiding all risks and following the recommendations will not remove all such risk. Ownership of information risks remains with the relevant system owner at all times.

CISA does not endorse any commercial product or service, including any subjects of analysis. Any reference to specific commercial products, processes, or services by service mark, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not constitute or imply their endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by CISA.

References Revisions
  • May 5, 2020: Initial Version

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-120A: Microsoft Office 365 Security Recommendations

US-CERT Security Alerts - Wed, 04/29/2020 - 06:41
Original release date: April 29, 2020<br/><h3>Summary</h3><p>As organizations adapt or change their enterprise collaboration capabilities to meet “telework” requirements, many organizations are migrating to Microsoft Office 365 (O365) and other cloud collaboration services. Due to the speed of these deployments, organizations may not be fully considering the security configurations of these platforms.</p> <p>This Alert is an update to the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's May 2019 Analysis Report, <a href="https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/analysis-reports/AR19-133A">AR19-133A: Microsoft Office 365 Security Observations</a>, and reiterates the recommendations related to O365 for organizations to review and ensure their newly adopted environment is configured to protect, detect, and respond against would be attackers of O365.</p> <h3>Technical Details</h3><p>Since October 2018, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has conducted several engagements with customers who have migrated to cloud-based collaboration solutions like O365. In recent weeks, organizations have been forced to change their collaboration methods to support a full “work from home” workforce.</p> <p>O365 provides cloud-based email capabilities, as well as chat and video capabilities using Microsoft Teams. While the abrupt shift to work-from-home may necessitate rapid deployment of cloud collaboration services, such as O365, hasty deployment can lead to oversights in security configurations and undermine a sound O365-specific security strategy.</p> <p>CISA continues to see instances where entities are not implementing best security practices in regard to their O365 implementation, resulting in increased vulnerability to adversary attacks.</p> <h3>Mitigations</h3><p>The following list contains recommended configurations when deploying O365:</p> <p><strong>Enable multi-factor authentication for administrator accounts: </strong>Azure Active Directory (AD) Global Administrators in an O365 environment have the highest level of administrator privileges at the tenant level. This is equivalent to the Domain Administrator in an on-premises AD environment. The Azure AD Global Administrators are the first accounts created so that administrators can begin configuring their tenant and eventually migrate their users. Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is not enabled by default for these accounts. Microsoft has moved towards a “Secure by default” model, but even this must be enabled by the customer. The new feature, called “Security Defaults,”<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/fundamentals/concept-fundamentals-security-defaults">[1]</a> assists with enforcing administrators’ usage of MFA. These accounts are internet accessible because they are hosted in the cloud. If not immediately secured, an attacker can compromise these cloud-based accounts and maintain persistence as a customer migrates users to O365.</p> <p><strong>Assign Administrator roles using Role-based Access Control (RBAC):</strong> Given its high level of default privilege, you should only use the Global Administrator account when absolutely necessary. Instead, using Azure AD’s numerous other built-in administrator roles instead of the Global Administrator account can limit assigning of overly permissive privileges to legitimate administrators.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/users-groups-roles/directory-assign-admin-roles">[2]</a> Practicing the principle of “Least Privilege” can greatly reduce the impact if an administrator account is compromised.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/enterprise/identity-create-protect-global-admins?view=o365-worldwide">[3]</a> Always assign administrators only the minimum permissions they need to do conduct their tasks. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Enable Unified Audit Log (UAL): </strong>O365 has a logging capability called the Unified Audit Log that contains events from Exchange Online, SharePoint Online, OneDrive, Azure AD, Microsoft Teams, PowerBI, and other O365 services.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/compliance/search-the-audit-log-in-security-and-compliance?view=o365-worldwide">[4]</a> An administrator must enable the Unified Audit Log in the Security and Compliance Center before queries can be run. Enabling UAL allows administrators the ability to investigate and search for actions within O365 that could be potentially malicious or not within organizational policy.</p> <p><strong>Enable multi-factor authentication for all users: </strong>Though normal users in an O365 environment do not have elevated permissions, they still have access to data that could be harmful to an organization if accessed by an unauthorized entity. Also, threat actors compromise normal user accounts in order to send phishing emails and attack other organizations using the apps and services the compromised user has access to.</p> <p><strong>Disable legacy protocol authentication when appropriate: </strong>Azure AD is the authentication method that O365 uses to authenticate with Exchange Online, which provides email services. There are a number of legacy protocols associated with Exchange Online that do not support MFA features. These protocols include Post Office Protocol (POP3), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). Legacy protocols are often used with older email clients, which do not support modern authentication. Legacy protocols can be disabled at the tenant level or at the user level. However, should an organization require older email clients as a business necessity, these protocols will presumably not be disabled. This leaves email accounts accessible through the internet with only the username and password as the primary authentication method. One approach to mitigate this issue is to inventory users who still require the use of a legacy email client and legacy email protocols and only grant access to those protocols for those select users. Using Azure AD Conditional Access policies can help limit the number of users who have the ability to use legacy protocol authentication methods. Taking this step will greatly reduce an organization’s attack surface.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/conditional-access/block-legacy-authentication">[5]</a></p> <p><strong>Enable alerts for suspicious activity:</strong> Enabling logging of activity within an Azure/0365 environment can greatly increase the owner’s effectiveness of identifying malicious activity occurring within their environment and enabling alerts will serve to enhance that. Creating and enabling alerts within the Security and Compliance Center to notify administrators of abnormal events will reduce the time needed to effectively identify and mitigate malicious activity.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/compliance/alert-policies?view=o365-worldwide">[6]</a> At a minimum, CISA recommends enabling alerts for logins from suspicious locations and for accounts exceeding sent email thresholds.</p> <p><strong>Incorporate Microsoft Secure Score:</strong> Microsoft provides a built-in tool to measure an organization’s security posture with respect to its O365 services and offer enhancement recommendations.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/security/mtp/microsoft-secure-score?view=o365-worldwide">[7]</a> These recommendations provided by Microsoft Secure Score do NOT encompass all possible security configurations, but organizations should still consider using Microsoft Secure Score because O365 service offerings frequently change. Using Microsoft Secure Score will help provide organizations a centralized dashboard for tracking and prioritizing security and compliance changes within O365.</p> <p><strong>Integrate Logs with your existing SIEM tool:</strong> Even with robust logging enabled via the UAL, it is critical to integrate and correlate your O365 logs with your other log management and monitoring solutions. This will ensure that you can detect anomalous activity in your environment and correlate it with any potential anomalous activity in O365.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/security/office-365-security/siem-integration-with-office-365-ti?view=o365-worldwide">[8]</a></p> <h3>Solution Summary</h3> <p>CISA encourages organizations to implement an organizational cloud strategy to protect their infrastructure assets by defending against attacks related to their O365 transition and better securing O365 services.<a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/admin/security-and-compliance/secure-your-business-data?view=o365-worldwide">[9]</a> Specifically, CISA recommends that administrators implement the following mitigations and best practices:</p> <ul> <li>Use multi-factor authentication. This is the best mitigation technique to protect against credential theft for O365 administrators and users.</li> <li>Protect Global Admins from compromise and use the principle of “Least Privilege.”</li> <li>Enable unified audit logging in the Security and Compliance Center.</li> <li>Enable Alerting capabilities.</li> <li>Integrate with organizational SIEM solutions.</li> <li>Disable legacy email protocols, if not required, or limit their use to specific users.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3>References</h3> <ul> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/fundamentals/concept-fundamentals-security-defaults">[1] Azure AD Security Defaults</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/users-groups-roles/directory-assign-admin-roles">[2] Azure AD Administrator roles</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/enterprise/identity-create-protect-global-admins?view=o365-worldwide">[3] Protect Global Admins</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/compliance/search-the-audit-log-in-security-and-compliance?view=o365-worldwide">[4] Unified audit log</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/active-directory/conditional-access/block-legacy-authentication">[5] Block Office 365 Legacy Email Authentication Protocols</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/compliance/alert-policies?view=o365-worldwide">[6] Alert policies in the security and compliance center</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/security/mtp/microsoft-secure-score?view=o365-worldwide">[7] Microsoft Secure Score</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/security/office-365-security/siem-integration-with-office-365-ti?view=o365-worldwide">[8] SIEM integration with Office 365 Advanced Threat Protection</a></li> <li><a href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/microsoft-365/admin/security-and-compliance/secure-your-business-data?view=o365-worldwide">[9] Microsoft 365 security best practices</a></li> </ul> <h3>Revisions</h3> <ul> <li>April 29, 2020: Initial Version</li> </ul> <hr /> <div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field--item"><p class="privacy-and-terms">This product is provided subject to this <a href="https://us-cert.cisa.gov/privacy/notification">Notification</a> and this <a href="https://www.dhs.gov/privacy-policy">Privacy &amp; Use</a> policy.</p> </div>
Categories: Security Alerts

AA20-120A: Microsoft Office 365 Security Recommendations

US-CERT Security Alerts - Wed, 04/29/2020 - 06:41
Original release date: April 29, 2020
Summary

As organizations adapt or change their enterprise collaboration capabilities to meet “telework” requirements, many organizations are migrating to Microsoft Office 365 (O365) and other cloud collaboration services. Due to the speed of these deployments, organizations may not be fully considering the security configurations of these platforms.

This Alert is an update to the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency's May 2019 Analysis Report, AR19-133A: Microsoft Office 365 Security Observations, and reiterates the recommendations related to O365 for organizations to review and ensure their newly adopted environment is configured to protect, detect, and respond against would be attackers of O365.

Technical Details

Since October 2018, the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) has conducted several engagements with customers who have migrated to cloud-based collaboration solutions like O365. In recent weeks, organizations have been forced to change their collaboration methods to support a full “work from home” workforce.

O365 provides cloud-based email capabilities, as well as chat and video capabilities using Microsoft Teams. While the abrupt shift to work-from-home may necessitate rapid deployment of cloud collaboration services, such as O365, hasty deployment can lead to oversights in security configurations and undermine a sound O365-specific security strategy.

CISA continues to see instances where entities are not implementing best security practices in regard to their O365 implementation, resulting in increased vulnerability to adversary attacks.

Mitigations

The following list contains recommended configurations when deploying O365:

Enable multi-factor authentication for administrator accounts: Azure Active Directory (AD) Global Administrators in an O365 environment have the highest level of administrator privileges at the tenant level. This is equivalent to the Domain Administrator in an on-premises AD environment. The Azure AD Global Administrators are the first accounts created so that administrators can begin configuring their tenant and eventually migrate their users. Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is not enabled by default for these accounts. Microsoft has moved towards a “Secure by default” model, but even this must be enabled by the customer. The new feature, called “Security Defaults,”[1] assists with enforcing administrators’ usage of MFA. These accounts are internet accessible because they are hosted in the cloud. If not immediately secured, an attacker can compromise these cloud-based accounts and maintain persistence as a customer migrates users to O365.

Assign Administrator roles using Role-based Access Control (RBAC): Given its high level of default privilege, you should only use the Global Administrator account when absolutely necessary. Instead, using Azure AD’s numerous other built-in administrator roles instead of the Global Administrator account can limit assigning of overly permissive privileges to legitimate administrators.[2] Practicing the principle of “Least Privilege” can greatly reduce the impact if an administrator account is compromised.[3] Always assign administrators only the minimum permissions they need to do conduct their tasks.  

Enable Unified Audit Log (UAL): O365 has a logging capability called the Unified Audit Log that contains events from Exchange Online, SharePoint Online, OneDrive, Azure AD, Microsoft Teams, PowerBI, and other O365 services.[4] An administrator must enable the Unified Audit Log in the Security and Compliance Center before queries can be run. Enabling UAL allows administrators the ability to investigate and search for actions within O365 that could be potentially malicious or not within organizational policy.

Enable multi-factor authentication for all users: Though normal users in an O365 environment do not have elevated permissions, they still have access to data that could be harmful to an organization if accessed by an unauthorized entity. Also, threat actors compromise normal user accounts in order to send phishing emails and attack other organizations using the apps and services the compromised user has access to.

Disable legacy protocol authentication when appropriate: Azure AD is the authentication method that O365 uses to authenticate with Exchange Online, which provides email services. There are a number of legacy protocols associated with Exchange Online that do not support MFA features. These protocols include Post Office Protocol (POP3), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), and Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP). Legacy protocols are often used with older email clients, which do not support modern authentication. Legacy protocols can be disabled at the tenant level or at the user level. However, should an organization require older email clients as a business necessity, these protocols will presumably not be disabled. This leaves email accounts accessible through the internet with only the username and password as the primary authentication method. One approach to mitigate this issue is to inventory users who still require the use of a legacy email client and legacy email protocols and only grant access to those protocols for those select users. Using Azure AD Conditional Access policies can help limit the number of users who have the ability to use legacy protocol authentication methods. Taking this step will greatly reduce an organization’s attack surface.[5]

Enable alerts for suspicious activity: Enabling logging of activity within an Azure/0365 environment can greatly increase the owner’s effectiveness of identifying malicious activity occurring within their environment and enabling alerts will serve to enhance that. Creating and enabling alerts within the Security and Compliance Center to notify administrators of abnormal events will reduce the time needed to effectively identify and mitigate malicious activity.[6] At a minimum, CISA recommends enabling alerts for logins from suspicious locations and for accounts exceeding sent email thresholds.

Incorporate Microsoft Secure Score: Microsoft provides a built-in tool to measure an organization’s security posture with respect to its O365 services and offer enhancement recommendations.[7] These recommendations provided by Microsoft Secure Score do NOT encompass all possible security configurations, but organizations should still consider using Microsoft Secure Score because O365 service offerings frequently change. Using Microsoft Secure Score will help provide organizations a centralized dashboard for tracking and prioritizing security and compliance changes within O365.

Integrate Logs with your existing SIEM tool: Even with robust logging enabled via the UAL, it is critical to integrate and correlate your O365 logs with your other log management and monitoring solutions. This will ensure that you can detect anomalous activity in your environment and correlate it with any potential anomalous activity in O365.[8]

Solution Summary

CISA encourages organizations to implement an organizational cloud strategy to protect their infrastructure assets by defending against attacks related to their O365 transition and better securing O365 services.[9] Specifically, CISA recommends that administrators implement the following mitigations and best practices:

  • Use multi-factor authentication. This is the best mitigation technique to protect against credential theft for O365 administrators and users.
  • Protect Global Admins from compromise and use the principle of “Least Privilege.”
  • Enable unified audit logging in the Security and Compliance Center.
  • Enable Alerting capabilities.
  • Integrate with organizational SIEM solutions.
  • Disable legacy email protocols, if not required, or limit their use to specific users.

 

References Revisions
  • April 29, 2020: Initial Version

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Categories: Security Alerts
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